Question 110 pts

Describe the various problems afflicting the Uniform Crime Reports
Flag question: Question 2

Question 210 pts

Explain why it is possible to generate categorical variables from continuous data but not possible to obtain continuous data from categorical variables.
Flag question: Question 3

Question 310 pts

Briefly explain the essential differences between bar charts and histograms.
Flag question: Question 4

Question 410 pts

A professor has recently completed her grading for the final exam.  The scores can be seen in the data set below.  Unfortunately, the professor has noticed the mean is extremely low.  She is perplexed because she was certain the class had performed extraordinarily well as there were several scores in the 90s and two perfect exams.  Take a look at the grade distribution below, calculate the mean, examine the scores, and figure out why the mean was so low.




Flag question: Question 5

Question 510 pts

What is the purpose of inferential statistics?
Flag question: Question 6

Question 610 pts

Explain what is meant by ‘sampling error’.
Flag question: Question 7

Question 710 pts

A researcher has a data set of homicides occurring in large Southern metropolitan areas consisting of 304 cases with a mean of 25.68 and a standard deviation of 11.26.  The Professor has established α = .05.  Calculate the resulting confidence interval for this set of data.
Flag question: Question 8

Question 810 pts

Briefly explain the difference between a Type I and Type II error.
Flag question: Question 9

Question 910 pts

Very briefly explain what is meant by the term ‘non-directional test.’
Flag question: Question 10

Question 1010 pts

Explain why a researcher would opt for an ANOVA instead of a series of t-tests.Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice

Third Edition



Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice
Third Edition

Jacinta M. Gau
University of Central Florida



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Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Gau, Jacinta M., author.

Title: Statistics for criminology and criminal justice / Jacinta M. Gau, University of Central Florida.

Description: Third edition. | Los Angeles : SAGE, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017045048 | ISBN 9781506391786 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Criminal statistics. | Statistical methods.

Classification: LCC HV7415 .G38 2019 | DDC 519.5—dc23 LC record available at

All trademarks depicted within this book, including trademarks appearing as part of a screenshot, figure, or other image are included solely for
the purpose of illustration and are the property of their respective holders. The use of the trademarks in no way indicates any relationship with,
or endorsement by, the holders of said trademarks. SPSS is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Wendy Jo Dymond

Indexer: Beth Nauman-Montana

Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel

Marketing Manager: Jillian Oelsen


Brief Contents

Preface to the Third Edition
About the Author
Part I Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Use of Statistics in Criminal Justice and Criminology
Chapter 2 Types of Variables and Levels of Measurement
Chapter 3 Organizing, Displaying, and Presenting Data
Chapter 4 Measures of Central Tendency
Chapter 5 Measures of Dispersion

Part II Probability and Distributions
Chapter 6 Probability
Chapter 7 Population, Sample, and Sampling Distributions
Chapter 8 Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals

Part III Hypothesis Testing
Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing: A Conceptual Introduction
Chapter 10 Hypothesis Testing Wi

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