Please copy and paste in a word fill and highlight the answers to the following 50 questions.Part 1 of 1 – 0.0/ 100.0 PointsQuestion 1 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsAccording to the social contract, what is the source of government’s legitimacy? A.government’s authority over its subjects  B.the divine right of kings  C.the government’s control of all property  D.citizen consent  E.the Catholic Church Question 2 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhat form of government did James Madison promote for the United States and why? A.a republic, because it was feasible and because it would provide protection against the passions of the public  B.a direct democracy, because he felt that people lacked enough power when America was just a British colony  C.a direct democracy, because he felt that with only thirteen states and voting solely allowed for property owners, direct democracy was feasible in the United States  D.a social democracy, because it rejected viewing property as an inalienable right  E.a communist democracy, because most eighteenth-century intellectuals admired Karl Marx Question 3 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsAll of the following were true of the government under the Articles of Confederation except A.larger states had more votes in the national legislature.  B.there was no national judicial branch.  C.the national government could not levy taxes.  D.the national government could not regulate commerce.  E.amendments required the support of all thirteen states. Question 4 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsShays’ Rebellion was A.the slave rebellion in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War.  B.the first uprising of colonists against the British.  C.a grassroots uprising by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures.  D.the first of the Indian uprisings during the Revolutionary War.  E.the uprising of the Spanish against the English colonists. Question 5 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsFederalism is defined as a political system in which A.power is divided among legislative, executive, and judicial powers.  B.the most power is given to the central government.  C.power is divided between the central and regional governments.  D.the most power is given to the state governments.  E.the president retains more power than Congress. Question 6 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsIn 2012, the five smallest states held roughly 0.5 percent of the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and 10 percent of the seats in the U.S. Senate. These differing levels of representation of the five smallest states were the result of which decision during the Constitutional Convention? A.the New Jersey Plan  B.the Virginia Plan  C.the Three-Fifths Compromise  D.the Great Compromise  E.the Separation of Powers Question 7 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe question of counting slaves for the purposes of representation was ultimately resolved by counting: A.slaves just as non-slaves for purposes of representation  B.every five slaves as three people for purposes of representation  C.every four slaves as three people for purposes of representation  D.every two slaves as one person for purposes of representation  E.every slave as one person for the allocation of block grants but prohibiting voting by slaves Question 8 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe constitutional safeguard that places legislative, executive, and judicial powers in different hands is called A.separation of powers.  B.checks and balances.  C.federalism.  D.bicameralism.  E.fusion of powers. Question 9 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe principle that allows each of the branches of government to police the others is A.separation of powers.  B.checks and balances.  C.republicanism.  D.fusion of powers.  E.federalism. Question 10 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsIn the Constitution, civil rights issues arise under the clause. A.supremacy  B.due process  C.equal protection  D.necessary and proper  E.interstate commerce Question 11 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsA major argument in favor of reducing the separation of powers called for in the U.S. Constitution is that it would A.allow prompt, decisive leadership in times of crisis.  B.weaken the presidency and give greater protection against executive dictatorship.  C.disperse credit or blame equally among the three branches of government.  D.apportion responsibility for implementing government programs among members of Congress.  E.create a truly independent judiciary. Question 12 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhich of the following is not a category of claim arising under the establishment clause? A.government sponsorship of religious symbols or doctrines  B.government financial aid to religious institutions  C.neutral laws of general applicability adversely affecting religion  D.excessive accommodation of religion by government  E.neither c nor d Question 13 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe establishment clause guarantees A.that government will not create and support an official state church.  B.that all citizens may freely engage in religious activities of their choice.  C.the right to set up a church whenever a religious group so desires.  D.that American government is based on Judeo-Christian values.  E.that all churches shall have tax-exempt status. Question 14 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe Lemon test established that A.there shall be no excessive entanglement of government and religion.  B.if there is prayer or Bible readings in schools, then students who do not wish to participate must be excused. state can establish an official religion.  D.states may prohibit religious activities that present a clear and present danger.  E.citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice. Question 15 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWriting for the Supreme Court, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. proclaimed that the Congress could punish dangerous speech when that speech A.represented a “clear and present danger” to the United States.  B.incited citizens to commit a lawless action.  C.was false.  D.Options a, b, c, and d are true.  E.None of the above is true. Question 16 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe exclusionary rule is the Supreme Court rule that states that A.evidence not related to a crime must be excluded from a person’s trial.  B.a defendant’s religious activities must be excluded from evidence.  C.special regulations promulgated by the president to keep foreign aliens from entering.  D.a defendant’s previous record cannot be raised in a trial.  E.illegally seized evidence cannot be used to obtain a conviction. Question 17 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsMiranda v. Arizona held that A.all confessions must be made in the presence of a lawyer.  B.police have to advise people of their constitutional rights prior to questioning.  C.police can no longer use confessions as a basis for arresting a person.  D.confessions will be judged by the “totality of circumstances” rule.  E.confessions obtained beyond U.S. borders cannot be used as evidence in U.S. courts. Question 18 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe difference between civil rights and civil liberties is A.that civil rights involve government action to secure rights of citizenship while civil liberties involve individual freedoms that limit the power of government.  B.that civil rights involve freedoms while civil liberties involve voting.  C.that civil rights involve speech, press, and religious freedom while civil liberties involve voting.  D.inconsequential, because the terms are used interchangeably in the United States.  E.that civil rights limit the power of government while civil liberties expand the power of government. Question 19 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhen Clarence Brandenburg vacated the street at a Ku Klux Klan cross-burning rally as ordered but threatened to reoccupy it later, the Supreme Court overturned his conviction by arguing that government can only restrict speech when it A.presents a clear and present danger.  B.incites an “imminent” lawless action. against the ruling political party. against the president. against law enforcement officers. Question 20 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsBurning the American flag is an example of A.action, not speech.  B.illegal speech.  C.premeditated speech.  D.libel.  E.symbolic speech. Question 21 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe Supreme Court’s current definition of obscenity denies free-speech protection to materials or activities that A.depict sexuality in a way that is degrading to its subjects.  B.promote violence against women or children.  C.lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.  D.present a clear and present danger to community standards of decency. not appeal to the prurient interest. Question 22 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhich is an example of an unconstitutional search? A.Police searching a person when he or she is being arrested.  B.Police searching the room of a house where a person is being arrested.  C.A government worker’s files being searched for information pertaining to his or her job.  D.None of the above is true.  E.Options a, b, c, and d are true. Question 23 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsIn the Gideon v. Wainright ruling, the Supreme Court A.incorporated the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee of the right to counsel.  B.declared the death penalty to be constitutional.  C.relaxed the provisions of the exclusionary rule.  D.declared that police do not need to obtain a warrant to search a car.  E.incorporated the exclusionary rule. Question 24 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe Supreme Court ruling in Griswold v. Connecticut is significant because it A.protected a poor person’s right to counsel  B.incorporated the exclusionary rule.  C.opened the door to for a variety of claims regarding the right to privacy.  D.created a new standard regarding the regulation of political speech.  E.changed precedent regarding searches and seizures. Question 25 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhat is the definition of strict scrutiny? A.A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that limit some freedoms or that make a suspect classification.  B.A standard of review used by the Court to evaluate laws that make a non-suspect classification.  C.A standard of review used by the Court to evaluate laws that make a quasi-suspect classification.  D.A policy of creating opportunities for members of certain groups as a substantive remedy for past discrimination.  E.The requirement of reading or comprehension skills as a qualification for voting. Question 26 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsLaws in the post-Civil War South designed to restrict the social and economic autonomy of former slaves were called codes.  B.Dred Scott laws.  C.fugitive slave laws.  D.Jim Crow laws.  E.Uncle Tom laws. Question 27 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsAll of the following are indicia of suspectness except A.political powerlessness.  B.history of purposeful discrimination.  C.immutable trait.  D.substantive evil.  E.grossly unfair. Question 28 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhat is the definition of affirmative action? A.a policy of creating opportunities for members of certain groups as a substantive remedy for past discrimination  B.the practice and policy of separating races  C.discrimination arising from or supported by the law  D.a heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that limit some freedoms or that make a suspect classification  E.refusal to buy certain goods or services as a way to protest policy or force political reform Question 29 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhen President George W. Bush established the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives in 2001 to allow religious organizations to compete for federal grants to provide federally funded social services, he was likely relying on which interpretation of the establishment clause of the First Amendment, establishing the separation of church and state? A.The government is prohibited from establishing an official church or a state-sponsored religion.  B.The government may not take sides among competing religions but is not prohibited from supporting religious institutions.  C.There is a wall of separation between church and state that cannot be breached by government.  D.Each citizen has the right to believe and practice whatever religion he or she chooses.  E.The government can violate the separation of church and state when it serves a compelling state interest. Question 30 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe founders adopted a federal system A.because they hoped King George III would approve such an arrangement.  B.because they were inspired by the writings of John Locke, who advocated such an arrangement. a compromise between those who wanted a strong central government and those who wanted to retain strong state governments. a return to ancient forms of government.  E.because a division of sovereignty between a central government and regional governments is a basic principle of democracy. Question 31 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe Plan proposed equal representation for all states in the legislature. A.Virginia  B.Connecticut  C.New Jersey  D.Delaware  E.Pennsylvania Question 32 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhich of the following is NOT a part of the system of checks and balances? a, presidents can veto legislation. A.presidents can force Congress to adjourn.  B.Congress can impeach the president.  C.the Supreme Court can declare acts of Congress or the president unconstitutional.  D.Congress can impeach members of the judiciary. Question 33 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsSpeech that directly incites damaging conduct is known as: A.fighting words  B.reckless communication  C.indefensible declamation  D.conflict-initiating communication  E.semantic provocation Question 34 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe requirement that the judicial system must proceed according to law and with adequate protection for individual rights is known as: A.due process of law  B.the fairness clause  C.the inclusionary rule  D.the equal protection clause  E.the habeas corpus rule Question 35 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsAccording to the Federalists, the advantage of federalism over a confederation was that the former A.would lead to the elimination of slavery.  B.gave all the power to state governments.  C.gave city governments significant amounts of power.  D.divided power between the federal and state governments.  E.would limit factions. Question 36 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe following is an example of a law that would only have to pass the reasonable standard where the government argues for the distinction on a rational basis. A.Laws requiring somebody to be 21 to legally purchase alcohol.  B.Men being punished for statutory rape even if women are not punished.  C.Laws protecting the voting rights of blacks.  D.State laws setting different ages at which men and women legally become adults  E.Women being barred from jobs by height and weight requirements Question 37 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsIn Federalist No. 84, Alexander Hamilton argued against a Bill of Rights because he A.thought that to list the powers that government did not have implied that it had all other powers.  B.feared that citizens would speak out against government.  C.opposed a free press.  D.thought it would lead to individual rights conflicting.  E.believed that American citizens already had too many rights. Question 38 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhich of the following types of cases would be afforded the intermediate scrutiny standard? A.a black man who was denied employment  B.a woman who was paid less than a man for doing the same job (who had the same experience)  C.a Jehovah’s Witness who was denied employment because of religion  D.a person born in England who was paid less than another employee doing the same job (who had the same experience)  E.a 70-year-old who was denied employment because of age Question 39 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe source of authority cited by the Supreme Court for applying the Bill of Rights to the states is A.the Bill of Rights.  B.Congress.  C.the Fourteenth Amendment.  D.Marbury v. Madison.  E.Federalist No. 10. Question 40 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsAccording to the Supreme Court, saying prayers in public schools A.violates the free exercise clause.  B.violates the establishment clause. permitted under the public expression clause.  D.would be permissible if a majority of the students agreed to prayers and the prayers were nondenominational.  E.violates the rights of accommodationists. Question 41 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsIn the landmark case of Near v. Minnesota, the Supreme Court established the rule that A.obscenity is not protected under the First Amendment.  B.unfair political criticism is not protected by the First Amendment.  C.publications advocating criminal behavior are not protected by the First Amendment.  D.the press can never be censored.  E.prior restraint is permissible only in rare cases of extreme emergency. Question 42 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsSearch warrants are not to be issued unless the standard of has been met. A.probable cause  B.reasonable suspicion  C.articulable suspicion  D.reasonable doubt  E.preponderance of evidence Question 43 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhich of the following Supreme Court rulings did not settle a claim under the free exercise clause? A.Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)  B.Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah (1993)  C.Sherbert v. Verner (1963)  D.Employment Div., Dept. of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith (1990)  E.City of Boerne v. Flores (1997) Question 44 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsIn Lawrence v. Texas the Supreme Court ruled that A.state sodomy laws are a violation of the right to privacy.  B.fair employment policies for gays were unconstitutional. couples have the right to receive the social benefits available to married heterosexual couples. couples cannot be denied housing on the basis of sexual orientation.  E.the right to same-sex marriage is protected by the Constitution. Question 45 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe legal methods used to deny African Americans the right to vote, such as literacy tests and poll taxes, were overcome by A.passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Twenty-fourth Amendment. executive order issued by President Lyndon Johnson.  C.changes in the political leadership of the southern states.  D.passage of the Fourteenth Amendment.  E.Reconstruction. Question 46 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe impact of Plessy v. Ferguson was to A.authorize the segregation of whites and blacks.  B.uphold the civil rights of blacks.  C.keep blacks from getting jobs traditionally belonging to whites.  D.enforce the Fifteenth Amendment’s ban on denying the right to vote on the basis of race.  E.strike down “separate but equal” laws. Question 47 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe major impact of Brown v. Board of Education was that it A..served a catalyst for the civil rights movement.  B.caused school desegregation in the South to move ahead rapidly.  C.instituted busing to overcome de facto discrimination.  D.motivated African Americans to align themselves with Mexican Americans to bring about school desegregation.  E.caused many southern whites to move to the North. Question 48 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsWhich of the following is NOT constitutional? A.busing to bring about racial desegregation across school districts  B.the use of affirmative action programs to hire more minorities  C.economic boycotts  D.fulfilling quotas of minorities in school admissions  E.restricting the right of felons to vote Question 49 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsAmerican constitutional democracy has its theoretical origins in A.liberalism. contract theory.  C.republicanism.  D.a and c only.  E.all of the above. Question 50 of 500.0/ 2.0 PointsThe process of applying the Bill of Rights to the states on a case-by-case basis is A.discriminating incorporation.  B.double jeopardy.  C.rational incorporation.  D.discerning incorporation.  E.selective incorporation.

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