You began conducting research for your final paper examining a state or local social issue. By now, you already have developed a research topic and a working thesis statement, along with a small bibliography of resources for support.For this Critical Thinking Assignment you are to add three credible sources to your original bibliography, for a total of at least five credible sources.Annotate all sources, using college-level writing skills and proper APA Style for quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sources. Begin your annotated bibliography by describing your research plan at the top of the page.RequirementsYour annotated bibliography should be 2-3 pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages, which you must include.Your paper must be formatted according to APA format.Running head: SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND DRUG DEPENDENCY
Causes and Solutions to Substance Abuse and Drug Dependency among the Filipino-American
Mark Anthony Cayanan
ENG 102 – Composition II (GT-CO2)
Colorado State University – Global Campus
Dr. Barbara Ciccarelli
July 23, 2016
Causes and Solutions to Substance Abuse and Drug Dependency among the Filipino-American
Substance abuse and drug dependency is a social and public health concern that has not
only garnered notoriety across the U.S., it has also become a thorny issue across the global scene
with almost every country in the world somehow grappling with the its consequences. It is
contended that individuals of Asian-American heritage exhibit considerably lower prevalence
rates of substance abuse and drug dependency compared to the national average (Wu & Blazer,
2015). However, Fong & Tsuang (2007) note that this conception might not hold true for all
Asian-American subgroups. Therefore, it is possible that prevalence rates may be higher for
some subgroups compared to others. Nonetheless, the continued existence of this scourge, even
to a minimal extent, places the community in a constant risk of deterioration and the associated
burdens brought about by the loss of much needed human resource to substance abuse and drug
dependency. Therefore, one persistent concern keeps nagging at me: what would it take to curb
the prevalence of substance abuse and drug dependency among the Filipino community in
America? Socio-cultural factors are among the contributors to the continuing substance abuse
and drug dependency by Filipino-Americans thereby necessitating a prompt evaluation and
rectification of these factors.
Socio-cultural factors make up the primary drivers of substance abuse and drug
dependency among the Filipino-American community. Suffice to note, however, in addition to
socio-cultural factors, individual and familial factors also play a crucial part in the prevalence of
this vice. According to Moloney, Hunt & Evans (2008), personal and cultural identity are
important social factors that contribute to the prevalence of substance abuse and drug
dependency. Personal and cultural identity challenges can arise from the conflicts and stresses
that is accompanied by the process of acculturation and Americanization. Consequently, these
challenges and stresses associated with the Filipino-American identity contribute to the
susceptibility of people to substance abuse and drug dependency. Another factor that directly
causes substance abuse and drug dependency and further exacerbates the already complex
situation is the relative ease with which people can obtain drugs within their neighborhoods.
Once substance abuse and drug dependency sets in, the situation is further compounded by the
presence of certain barriers that make access to treatment and rehabilitation difficult. For
example, some studies reveal that the utilization rates of health services by Filipino-Americans
are low, a fact that may be attributable to the lack of culturally sensitive services (Ziguras,
Klimidis, Lewis, & Stuart, 2003). Therefore, it becomes difficult to extend assistance to the
affected individuals owing to such barriers.
Irrespective of the prevalence of substance abuse and drug dependency, there is a
constant light at the end of the tunnel because the potential solutions to this quagmire are present.
First, people must be encouraged to embrace their identity rather than create a crisis out of it.
People must understand that diversity is not necessarily a bad thing and that resort to drugs and
other substances is never a solution to these identity crises. Second, the government must clean
up its act with regards to ridding the streets off these drugs. It certainly would be much easier
combating substance use if the drugs were not so readily available in the streets and alleys of our
cities. Third, for those already in too deep, the existing barriers to treatment must be brought
down. Lack of adequate statistics on the Filipino-American population is no longer an acceptable
excuse. Health and rehabilitation service providers must adopt strategies that are culturally
sensitive in order to encourage Filipino-Americans to seek help. Culturally sensitive services can
be delivered by, for example, employing staff members such as clinicians and counselors that are
culturally and linguistically competent. Taking down the systemic barriers to access to health and
rehabilitative services will go a long way curbing the prevalence of substance abuse and drug
dependency among the Filipino-American community.
Fong, T. & Tsuang, J. (2007). Asian-Americans, Addictions, and Barriers to
Treatment. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 4(11), 51-59.
Moloney, M., Hunt, G., & Evans, K. (2008). Asian American Identity and Drug Consumption:
From Acculturation to Normalization. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 7(4), 376403.
Wu, L. & Blazer, D. (2015). Substance use disorders and co-morbidities among Asian
Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. Psychological Medicine, 45, 481–494.
Ziguras, S., Klimidis, S., Lewis, J., & Stuart, G. (2003). Ethnic Matching of Clients and
Clinicians and Use of Mental Health Services by Ethnic Minority Clients. Pyschiatry
Services, 54(4), 535-541.

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