Study Questions 1. Discuss Peirce’s view that the method of science is a better way to fix our beliefs than the methods of tenacity, authority, and reason. 2. A common criticism of James’s pragmatic theory of truth is that he is saying something is true if it simply makes us feel good. How might James respond to this criticism? 3. Discuss James’s pragmatic analysis of the free will and determinism debate and whether you agree with his conclusion. 4. According to James, many traditional philosophical problems can be answered with pragmatism. Select one such problem—such as external objects, personal identity, the mind–body problem, moral relativism—and evaluate it using James’s pragmatic method. 5. Discuss Dewey’s instrumental theory of knowledge and whether it is any more effective than a rationalist or empiricist account of knowledge. 6. Explain how, according to Dewey, social values are discovered through experience, and are not eternal truths revealed to us through rational thinking. 7. Explain Bergson’s concept of duration, and how it is the stream of experience in which we live. 8. Discuss Bergson’s view that intuition enables us to extend morality beyond particular social groups to humanity at large. 9. Explain Whitehead’s notion of “actual entities.” 10. Peirce, Dewey, James, Bergson, and Whitehead all criticize traditional approaches to knowledge, such as rationalism and empiricism. Explain their specific critiques and what they have in common.Stumpf, Samuel Enoch. Philosophy: History and Readings: Philosophy: A Historical Survey with Essential Readings (Page 431). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kindle Edition. Study Questions 1. Explain Russell’s theory of logical atomism, and use it to analyze these two statements: “The dog chased the cat” and “The world is only a thought within the divine mind.” 2. Discuss the two problems with logical atomism. 3. Explain logical positivism’s principle of verification, and use it to analyze these two statements: “The refrigerator is cold” and “Substance is the reality that is spread beneath all attributes of a thing.” 4. Using an example of your own, explain how, according to Carnap, statements in psychology pass the test of empirical verifiability. 5. Carnap argued that ethical statements do not pass the test of the verification principle and thus are meaningless statements. Using an example of your own, explain Carnap’s reasoning and say whether you agree. 6. Pick one of the four criticisms of logical positivism, and defend logical positivism against it. 7. Explain Quine’s two dogmas of empiricism, and speculate about how an empiricist such as Locke or Carnap might respond. 8. Explain Wittgenstein’s notion of language games and rule following, and discuss how the word “consciousness” might be used in different language games. 9. Explain Austin’s conception of linguistic phenomenology, and use it to analyze the word “promise”. 10. Much of analytic philosophy was driven by an attempt to address (and sometimes dismiss) metaphysical claims. Compare and contrast the different ways that analytic philosophers have analyzed metaphysical statements.Stumpf, Samuel Enoch. Philosophy: History and Readings: Philosophy: A Historical Survey with Essential Readings (Page 453). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kindle Edition.
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