Do you have time to do paper by tomorrow APA Stylei attached the instructions. I have also included a sample the professor gave us to go by. I need 10 Bibliography, I got 8 please add 2more. You can change add anything you need to. total 5 to 6 page paper by tomorrow APA Stylei need quality work pleasei will accept lower bid.Running head: DIVORCED FAMILIES
Communication Strategies in Divorced Families
Communication Strategies in Divorced Families
In the U.S. today, nearly one in every two marriages ends in divorce (Forehand,
1994). This means that “nearly one individual in three experiences a parental divorce
during childhood or adolescence” (Forehand, 1994, p.1). There is no way to know for
sure whether this number will continue to increase, stabilize, or decrease in the upcoming
years, but it is safe to say that each divorce can have negative effects on all of the parties
involved. “There is ample research evidence that parental divorce can have detrimental
effects in school-age children and adolescents” (Clark-Stewart, 2000, p.1). It is extremely
important that our society learn how to best deal with the effects of divorce and manage
the difficult situations that can result from a family’s separating. While there is a great
deal of research on divorce and its effects, there is little on effective conflict management
techniques for families affected by divorce. Amato stresses the importance of blended
families realizing what a “strong stepfamily” looks like in order to become one (2003).
As the existing research has shown, the most important and beneficial ways to manage
conflict in divorced families are to listen, maintain family unity and have sufficient
boundaries (Golish, 2003).
The amount of research that is available on the underachievement of children of divorce
is immeasurable. In a study performed on the educational success of children of divorce,
Clark-Stewart found that “children from intact families performed significantly better
than children from divorced families on school achievement and on 16 classroombehavior ratings,” (2000, p.2). Once they had reached adolescence and young adulthood,
children of divorce had serious problems in their romantic relationships. These problems
often resulted in early marriages followed by divorce (Shulman, 2001). Shulman found
that adolescents whose parents had divorced often believed that relationships were not
meant to last (Southworth & Concord, 1987, as cited in Shulman, 2001). Zill, Morrison
and Coiro found that young adults from divorced families had “elevated levels of
emotional distress, problem behaviors, and a higher chance of dropping out of high
school” (1993, as cited in Shulman, 2001, p.2). Each of the problems listed is
detrimental to the development of children and adolescents. Without trust in a romantic
relationship, it is impossible to mature emotionally and within the relationship. The
effects of divorce on children can clearly be seen through these examples and can
contribute greatly to conflict among all family members.
Research has established that children of divorce try to compensate for the
negative effects they experience as a result of their parents’ separation. Through inperson and telephone interviews with 90 family members from 30 families, Golish was
able to pinpoint two ways in which children display the pain and emotion that they
experience: the need to protect the image of one parent and the feeling of loss of one
parent (2003). Children often feel the need to choose one parent over the other in the
attempt to protect that parent. This need is often a way of choosing sides and blaming one
parent for the divorce. If children spend most of their time with the mother and hear her
side of the argument, they may feel the need to protect the mother and blame the father.
This need usually comes as a result of the parents’ actions and how they handle the
conflict during and after the divorce. The feeling of loss that children have after a divorce
is a result of one parent’s moving out of the family’s home and the reduced amount of
time the child spends with that parent.
While a divorce is in progress, one parent must be given custody, or “the authority
exercised over the children” (van Wamelen, 1990, p.125). Although it is possible for
parents to share custody, in 90 percent of divorces involving children the mother is given
custody (van Wamelen, 1990). This decision of custody is the first step in assigning
superiority between the mother and the father. Once the courts give custody to one
parent, that parent has the control in the parenting. Often the two parents’ disciplinary
styles do not blend. Children usually begin to feel caught and often are put in the middle
of arguments between their parents (Afifi & Schrodt, 2003).
The hostility that is frequently involved in divorce makes compromise and
agreement more difficult for divorced parents than for parents who are married. In
Golish’s research, “One father expressed his frustration over the desire to coparent with
his former wife and the difficulty of doing so because of discrepancies in household
rules” (Golish, 2003, p.63). Once the parents have separated, children are exposed to two
separate households where disciplinary actions differ. “Many researchers have found,
however, that children are quite resilient to divorce if conflict between parents is
minimized” (Amato, 1991 as cited in Golish, 2003, p.42). If parents can handle conflict
in a mature and peaceful fashion, the children can often avoid feelings of loss and
To complicate matters more, once stepparents have been introduced into the
family, discipline can become the most strenuous part of parenting in a divorced family.
The majority of research on this topic suggests that stepparents should act as friends to
their stepchildren instead of as parents, “while supporting the parent’s disciplinary
actions” (Bray & Harvey, 1995; Schwebel et al., 1991 as cited in Golish, 2003, p.46).
Children often become rebellious or resistant to any authority that a stepparent tries to
possess. It is imperative in any blended family to listen carefully and to create structure
through communication and through boundaries.
NOTE TO COM 4459/ W01 STUDENTS:
Sentence above in blue states (implies) the research question and answers it.
Afifi, T.D., & Schrodt, P. (2003). “Feeling caught” as a mediator of adolescents’ and
young adults’ avoidance and satisfaction with their parents in divorced and nondivorced households. Communication Monographs, 70, 142-173. Retrieved from
Clarke-Stewart, K. A., McCartney, K., Vandell, D. L., Owen, M. T., & Booth, C. (2000).
Effects of parental separation and divorce on very young children. Journal of
Family Psychology, 14, 304-326. Retrieved from
Forehand, R., Neighbors, B., Devine, D., & Armistead, L. (1994). Interparental conflict
and parental divorce. Family Relations, 43, 387-394. Retrieved from
Golish, T.D. (2003). Stepfamily communication strengths: Understanding the ties that
bind. Human Communication Research, 29, 41-80. doi: 10.1093/hcr/29.1.41
Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary. (2003). New York: Simon & Schuster.
Shulman, S., Scharf, M., Lumar, D., & Mauer, O. (2001). How young adults perceive
parental divorce: The role of their relationships with their fathers and mothers.
Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 34, 3-11. doi: 10.1300/J087v34n03_02
Van Wamelen, C. (1990). Children’s ideas about “divorce and after.” Journal of Divorce
& Remarriage, 14, 125-134. doi: 10.1300/J087v14n02_07
Wallerstein, J. (1985). The overburdened child: Some long-term consequences of
divorce. Social Work, 30, 116-123. doi: 10.1093/sw/30.2.116
HOW CAN COUPLES MANAGE CONFLICT EFFECTIVELY IN LONG-DISTANCE
Baker, A. (2002). What makes an online relationship successful? Clues from couples
who met in cyberspace. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 5(4), 363-375,
Dating online or long distance definitely have its challenges however studies and research
has shown that it can be a successful way to date. There have been many couples who
have met online and dated long distance that got married. The purpose of the study is to
show what makes online relationship successful? The method used was talking and
gathering information from 68 couples. To represent successful and unsuccessful couples
in relationships online. The various technique used were interviews, questionnaire data
and email correspondence between the partners. Some of the challenges have
been communication styles and the way individuals have communicated in previous
relationships. Another major obstacle is the proximity of both individuals, the distance
can cause some major obstacles. Some of those would be trust issues, communicating
what the other person expectations are, etc. Meaning, will one partner eventually
relocate, how will they sustain the relationship for more than just a moment or
experience. The main concerns and issues revolves around how the couples relate and
handle conflicts. Many of the conflict issues comes back to what each individuals goals
are. If one partner is only seeking, fun and a good time not longevity and the other
partner is seeking a more secure long term engagement, there will be major problems
within that union. Couples that seem so perfect online, find it challenging offline if their
goals are too extremely different. Another factor to consider, whether to keep the online,
long distance relationship, sexual or not. There are a lot of factors to consider when
dating online but I think the main goal should be to define exactly what you’re looking
for and don’t waver. If you know without a doubt that you’re interested in a long term
commitment then say that, early on. The results of the study confirms and relate to my
RQ in this way, Don’t act like, you’re ok with just a casual relationship when you really
want more. It also proves that a long distance relationship can work long distance if you
can learn to handle conflicts maturely and openly.
2. Chang, S. (2003). Communication technologies and long-distance romantic
Paper Presented at the International Communication Association, 1-31,
This study was to prove how communication technology and long-distance romance
works. The method used was a focus group of college student. To comprehend how uses
of innovative communication technologies might have affected or been effected by the
dynamics of long distance relationships, it is essential to first be familiar with previous
works regarding long-distance long distance relationships and using the symbolicexchange framework proposed by Stephen (1987) as the theoretical structure for the
current research. Despite the studies it is still confirmed that face-to-face interaction is
still the best way to deal with conflicts in relationships. One of the main problems with
long distance relationship is jealousy. With distance being a factor and you can’t be with
the partner all the time, there leaves room for suspicion. One may ask the question is my
partner being faithful? Am I being lied too? Is this person really into me? The results of
the study showed that even though technology has helped when dealing with conflicts in
relationships, the old fashion way of face-to-face is still proven to be the best way.
The results of this study apply to my RQ in that although, advanced communication
technology doesn’t guarantee a successful relationship long distance nor does technology
causes some relationships to not be successful.
3.Jurkane-Hobein, I. (2015). Do I qualify for a love relationship? Social norms and
long-distance relationships in Post-Soviet Latvia. Sexuality & Culture, 19(2), 388406, doi:10.1007/s12119-014-9263-0
The study was used to show how social norms can cause hindrance in dating long
distance or not. The research method used was 19 individuals were interviewed. The
article analyzed the findings by interviewing 19 couples that are in a long distance
relationship in a collectivism culture versus an independent culture. The social norms
complicating or hindering LDR maintenance were found to be generation-specific and
gender-specific.(Jurkane-Hobein) So of the struggles individuals faced when deciding
whether to date long distance was based on how they were raised, what’s considered to
be the norm for their country. For example, if a couple decided to live together and they
were raised in a strict religious household, the couple had to deal with the scrutiny from
the family. The research showed how older individuals from collective cultures, would
not consider living together or dating long distance. In a collectivism culture
environment you’re expected to maintain certain social norms. Whereas, with the
younger generations, not so much. Age definitely makes a difference when deciding to
live together or apart. The results of the study showed that different social norms and
values will help an individual decide to go against the grain, which would be their
traditional family way of doing things or to totally not do it at all.
Pattie, B. (2009). The impact of conflict management styles on relational and
communication satisfaction: Comparing long-distance and geographically close dating
relationships. Paper presented at the National Communication Association, 1.
Investigation shows how different conflict management styles affect long distance
relationship versus dating someone locally. Distance causes a lot of stress on
relationship, a lot depends on the maturity level of couples. The method used in
this study was a survey. Several college students were asked questions regarding
how they handle conflicts within their respective relationships. There were two
groups, ones that were in a long distance relationship and the other group were
students who were dating locally. Both groups were asked the exact same
questions. Once the data was received from the selected students, the data was
reviewed and analyzed the next semester. The student used were from an
introduction to communication course. Various surveys were used to determine
how conflict management different styles show, that the way an individual handle
conflicts can determine relationship satisfaction. The results clearly shows that
sometimes the difference between individuals in how they handle conflict will
influence whether they will have a successful and satisfied relationship or not.
For example, if a guy is a person who yells and screams when he’s angry, but his
mate is soft and timid that’s not going to be an ideal situation. Research shows
that this type of scenario will most likely lead to the couple splitting up. Based on
this study, the indications are clear. The way a person handles conflict whether
it’s long distance or locally will affect the relationship. Long distance gives
individuals advantages because they can break up with you over the phone and
don’t have to deal with the emotional crying sometimes that occur when you
break up face to face.
Billedo, C. J., Kerkhof, P., & Finkenauer, C. (2015). The Use of Social Networking Sites
for Relationship Maintenance in Long-Distance and Geographically Close Romantic
Relationships. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 18(3), 152-157.
This study was conducted to show how social networking sites help or cause problems
within long distance relationships. An online survey was used to conduct this research.
Facebook was the medium used, targeting young adults. One of the major concerns when
dating long distance is the challenge of not being physically available. While social
media is great for keeping it touch, it also causes problems with couples. For example,
one of the major problems is jealousy. Couples are able to see who their partner is
having other communications with besides them exclusively. The distance creates a
barrier in the sense that by the time they see each other again, they would have calmed
down and are able to communicate effectively without all the emotions. Previous studies
have demonstrated that people involved in romantic relationships use SNS to access
information and to monitor their partner, and that they rely on this information to gauge
their partner’s involvement and loyalty.16,19,20 (Cherrie Joy Billedo, MA,1,2 Peter Kerkhof,
PhD,1 and Catrin Finkenauer, PhD3)
Based on this study, it has shown that social media
despite the jealousy aspect is still a viable tool in relationship maintenance long distance.
The pros outweigh the cons when you look at the bigger picture of the entire situation.
Dr. Deanna F. Womack
RESEARCH PAPER INSTRUCTIONS
The purpose of the research paper is to answer a research question (RQ) focused on
conflict communication by integrating information from peer-reviewed scholarly sources. It is
best to organize the paper by topic, not article-by-article. Group articles about similar concepts
together so that articles relate to each other and paragraphs are unified. (If you are familiar with
literature reviews, you can think of this as a standard literature review of research about
your research question.)
You’ll answer the research question by using 5 scholarly research
articles for your individual section of the paper, either chosen from the reference list that you
submitted earlier or articles that you’ve discovered more recently. (Don’t forget to correct the
format of references you turned in earlier and/or to add new references if you have used them.)
When discussing the research, you should briefly describe purposes, methods, results and
implications of studies, the same information you included in your annotated bibliography. Do
not include hypotheses; you can mention specifics of hypotheses that were confirmed when you
present the results and implications. You should not use more than 5-10 sentences for any one
study because you’re trying to present an overview of the total research answering your question.
You don’t necessarily need to understand all the technical details, but you should be able to
understand the purpose, conclusion, and discussion of each article. You may have difficulty
understanding the details of the methods or results; if you need help, ask! The discussion of
each article should end with a statement about how it answers your research question.
You need a reference page. (Don’t forget to correct the references you turned in earlier
and/or to add new references if you have used them.) Every reference listed in the text of the
paper should appear in the reference list, and vice versa. In the reference list, include
ONLY the sources you actually used in the text of the paper. The total sources must number
5 or more different sources times the number of members in your group. So if your group has 5
members, your paper should have a total of 25 different sources.
Your individual part of the paper should USE 5 articles from peer-reviewed academic
journals or scholarly book chapters or conference papers. The paper should be 3-5 pages long using
10-12 point font, double spacing, and one-inch margins and should have a reference list of 5
articles or scholarly book chapters. The paper should conform to 6th ed. APA documentation style.
The paper should be written as a whole, WITHOUT SUBHEADS; the parts should be indicated
by transitions and internal summaries.
YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ADHERING TO THE COLLEGE
STATEMENT ON PLAGIARISM. REMEMBER TO GIVE CREDIT WITH IN-TEXT
CITATIONS FOR IDEAS AS WELL AS TO GIVE CREDIT USING BOTH QUOTATION
MARKS AND IN-TEXT CITATIONS WITH PAGE NUMBERS FOR DIRECT
However, APA suggests that direct quotations should be avoided in a research
paper and should never be used to present new ideas. Quotations should never begin or
end a paragraph. They should be used sparingly (a good guideline is no more than 5 total
quotations for the group paper) to provide evidence that what you’ve said about the theory is
correct, or to emphasize an idea that is phrased with a very apt statement of the idea.
The tone of the paper should be that of a business report: no slang, no personal pronouns
(I, you, we), no contractions (isn’t, didn’t). The paper should be formal but not stuffy.
Remember that there are differences between spoken language and the “grapholect,” standard
written English. Don’t use long words unless you know what they mean. Don’t use a
Research Paper Instructions 2
multisyllable word when a simpler one will do. Be sure to make it clear that you understand
technical terms you include.
Papers in the D2L Dropbox will automatically be submitted to
www.turnitin.com. It may take 24 hours or more to generate the originality report, but I
have set the files so that you will be able to see it. Click on the colored icon containing a
percentage. You should see a copy of your paper. Passages that match Turnitin’s database
will appear underlined in color with a reference number. If you click on the reference
number, you should see a split screen with your paper on the left and the matching text on
the right. CHECK TO SEE THAT WORDS FROM THE ORIGINAL ARE ENCLOSED IN
QUOTATION MARKS OR REWORD YOUR PAPER TO CREATE A TRUE PARAPHRASE.
Remember that examples of “unintentional plagiarism” are penalized 10 points per
sentence. Take advantage of this opportunity to check for mistakes before I grade the
Take a careful look at the grading rubric before you submit your paper. All papers must
be proofread, grammar-checked, and spell-checked before you submit them.
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