I need the attached lab completed in full please. Thank you!12
JUPITER
OBJECTIVES
1.
2.
To identify various features in the Jovian atmosphere.
To describe changes in Jovian meteorology.
3.
To measure the differences in the rotation rates of features around Ju
PREPARATION
If you have not done so, read the section in your text on Jupiter. Y
following meteorological features on Jupiter.
The dark bands of clouds encircling Jupiter at one latitude are ca
whitish bands of neighboring latitudes are called zones. A variety of cyc
hurricanes inhabit the belts and zones. Brown ovals are dark brown an
ovals, as the name states, are white and clearly show swirling clouds. A
Great Red Spot which has heen seen since Galileo’s time and is reddis
is over three times as large as the entire Earth.
Bring a calculator to this laboratory.
You have now nearly finished the preparation for the laboratory. If y
please reread the preparation, consult your textbook or ask questions
questions on the next page and be ready to hand them to your instruc
12-1
Name:
Date:
JUPITER PRE-LAB
Using your lecture textbook and/or any other acceptable source of inf
in complete sentences. Be sure to define any relevant terms.
1.
Sketch the visible surface of Jupiter below.
2.
Explain the following features seen in Jupiter’s outer gas layer.
a. Belt:
b. Zone:
c. Great Red Spot:
d. Brown Oval:
e. White Oval:
f. Turbulence:
3.
Explain the following terms relating to the wind motion in Jupiter’
a. Convection:
b. Coriolis Effect:
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Name:
Partners:
Date:
JUPITER LAB E X E R C I S E
Jupiter has been investigated by a series of spacecraft beginning
in late 1973 and late 1974, respectively. Voyager 1, on March 5,1979,
More recently, the Galileo space probe sent back pictures of Jupiter beg
the Cassini – Huygens space probe during a flyby of Jupiter in 2000/20
the images that will be used in this lab. Pioneer 11, and Voyagers 1 an
Saturn. Voyager 2 went on to Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989.
studied a variety of phenomena associated with Jupiter, such as its m
photographed its satellites, this laboratory is concerned with the Jovia
Jupiter has no terrestrial type surface. Every feature in the images
in this lab is an atmospheric feature. The atmosphere is very energetic
storms. We still do not know exactly how this dynamic atmosphere w
it apparently comes mostly from within the planet. As you will see in th
Jupiter changes quickly and dramatically!
The atmosphere of Jupiter exhibits a definite banded structure. T
belts (dark bands) and zones (light bands). On the worksheet dashe
and zones and will be used to indicate the location in latitude of a feat
only various cloud layers. No solid surface is visible.
WORKING WITH THE WEBSITE
You will be using a web site that displays an animated GIF of succ
of Jupiter’s atmosphere that also includes each frame as a still image.
differences in the way the functionality of the web site is displayed by
the navigation instructions below may yield slightly different outcomes
you use.
Go to the GPC Astronomy Lahs website: (address will be provided
on the Jupiter’s Atmosphere link. You should see a “movie” (an anima
top of Jupiter’s atmosphere. Some web browsers may display the first
In that case, you can click on “movie” at the bottom of the right hand
1, below). This will start the movie in a new browser window. Undern
movie” that shows Jupiter in its true, spherical shape.
The rightmost panel also contains the links to the 82 successive s
movie. Each frame was taken a time interval equal to 2 Jupiter rotatio
The rotation rate of Jupiter is 9 hours 55 minutes 30 seconds. Throug
with both the still images and the movie.
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On the website for the Jupiter lab, there
is a vertical, pink bar directly to the right of
the map image showing the abbreviations of
the names of Jupiter’s zones and belts. The
bar also contains the latitude scale in units
of degrees (°) as shown. Table 1 below gives
the full names of each of the cloud bands for
reference.
16 [n [is [19120
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Table 1: Names of Cloud Bands
NTZ
NTB
NTrZ
NEB
EZ
SEB
STrZ
STB
STZ
North Temperate Zone
North Temperate Belt
North Tropical Zone
North Equatorial Belt
Equatorial Zone
South Equatorial Belt
South Tropical Zone
South Temperate Belt
South Temperate Zone
71 [72
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movie
The horizontal, blue bar on the bottom of the screen indicates degre
on the website goes from 0° to 360°; in other words, all the way aroun
JOVIAN ATMOSPHERE
The equator runs horizontally along the middle of the broad, fast mo
clouds, the Equatorial Zone. Just as with a map of Earth, north is toward
You can see that almost all of the motion is longitudinal along the EastA
a phenomenon called the Coriolis Effect.
The Coriolis effect occurs when there is motion on an object that is r
why we have cyclonic storms, like hurricanes, and jet streams on Earth
or south will be deflected east or west due to the fact that the Earth rota
the stronger the Coriolis Effect. Jupiter rotates much faster than the E
Consequently, Jupiter’s atmosphere is broken up into many more band
with much faster wind speeds. As we will find out, it also leads to monstr
any hurricane on Earth.
PART 1 – GREAT RED SPOT AND LITTLE RED SPOT
Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS) is the oldest and most famous mete
entire solar system. It was seen by Galileo in the early 17th century. A
and changes color from deeper to paler reds, it stays at the same latitude
centuries. Since the year 2000, the GRS has been joined by the Little Re
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several years from the merger of three white, circular storm systems (w
from recent data that the LRS has some of the highest wind speeds m
those of the GRS. The LRS started to turn red in 2005 for as of yet u
which makes it look more similar to its larger, much more famous nei
Images 2 and 3 below show how the GRS and LRS, respectively,
from Cassini. Note that the LRS is near the lower right comer in the J
Image 2 – Great Red Spot
Image 3 – Little Red Spot
Both the GRS and LRS are anti-cyclones. Unlike hurricanes on E
rotate around a center of low pressure, anti-cyclones rotate around c
cyclone that pulls lower pressure air toward the center, an anit-cylon
away from the center, creating an opening that pulls cold air down fro
Saturn and Neptune, also exhibit examples of anti-cyclonic storms.
The recent formation of the LRS and the current slow dimming an
dramatically that Jupiter’s atmosphere is very dynamic and goes throu
of time scales. An interesting question arises of whether or not the G
other. We can start by taking a look at the sizes and drift velocities of
I.
The GRS is the largest of the rotating features. The LRS is the se
belt markings and the latitude tick marks in the vertical, pink bar
above to identify where the GRS and LRS are located. Describe th
zones and belts.
NOTE: To get exact measurements and belt/zone names. ONLY use o
rightmost panel. Depending on your web browser, the animated movi
the scale bar and labels. The scale bar is accurate for all still images
a)
Choose any still image and record the location of GRS amon
in degrees (°):
b)
Do the same for the location of LRS among zones/belts and i
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2.
Go back to the movie sequence and observe the rotation of the GRS
a) Is the GRS rotating clockwise or counterclockwise?
b) Is the LRS rotating clockwise or counterclockwise?
3.
What do you think keeps the GRS spinning over such a long period
Next, we can determine the sizes of the GRS and LRS. In order to d
one of the still images from the rightmost panel. The boundaries of the fr
adjusted. For convenience, you can click and drag the border between th
scale. By dragging the scale up the image, it may be easier to make me
4.
Choose one of the later images between numbers 70 and 80. Sin
was approaching Jupiter while this sequence of images was taken, th
quality than the initial images. By comparing the longitudes of the ea
the longitude of the western edge, the size of the object can be found
a) Find the diameter of the GRS in degrees (°) longitude:
b)
5.
Find the diameter of the LRS in degrees (°) longitude:
Jupiter’s circumference is 4.5 x 10^ km. This corresponds to a full 36
equator. Use this information to calculate the scale factor for conver
into kilometers. Find the number of kilometers in every degree.
Scale factor:
km/°
Note that the scale factor in °/km is most accurate for the equatorial re
north or south of the equator, the less accurate this scale becomes. By
surface onto a rectangle map, the latitudes towards the poles become m
stretched out.
6.
Use this scale factor from above and your diameter measurement of
to convert their diameters to km:
a)
Diameter of GRS:
b)
Diameter of LRS:
12-8
km. Show your work.
km. Show your work.
7.
If the Earth’s diameter is 12,756 km, how many times larger or sma
to Earth?
a) GRS:
, Show your work.
b) LRS:
. Show your work.
8. Now change back to the motion sequence and observe the motio
migrate across the planet.
a) Is the GRS moving east or west?
.
b) Is the LRS moving east or west?
.
Now, you will find the speed of these features as they drift around Ju
their change in position in degrees (°) longitude and then dividing by
change in position.
9.
First, we will determine their change in position between the first
a) Click on the first image in the rightmost panel and record the lo
Great Red Spot (GRS) in image 1:
Starting longitude
.
b) Click on image 82 and record the longitude of the center of th
Ending longitude
c) So, how much did the GRS move in longitude:.Show your work.
10. Do the same to measure the motion of the Little Red Spot (LRS)
a) Starting longitude
.
b) Ending longitude
.
c) Change in longitude:
.
11. In order to find the drift speed, we also need to know how much
starting and ending measurements. The time unit based on one o
Jovian Day or 1 JD. Remember, the time between two successive
rotations. Record the total time between image 1 and image 82 in
Total number of Jovian Days:
JD. Show your work
12-9
12. Finally, the speed of any feature can be found by dividing distance
longitudes from above and the number of Jovian Days from above, to
of the GRS and LRS in degrees per Jovian Days (° / JD):
a) GRS:
° / JD. Show your work.
b)
LRS:
° / JD. Show your work.
13. At the latitude of the Great Red Spot, a difference of 1 °/day transla
are faster closer to the equator and slower as you move away from th
much further south than the GRS. So, we will assume the same spee
a)
What is the speed of the GRS in m/s?
. Show y
b)
What is the speed of the LRS in m/s?
. Show yo
PART 2 – GENERAL ATMOSPHERIC FEATURES
So far, we have only looked at two specific features in Jupiter’s atmo
and the Little Red Spot, which are both located in the Southern Hemisph
on in Jupiter’s atmosphere that is worth studying. We will now look at the
The light colored bands are called “zones” and the dark colored band
are regions where atmospheric material rises up and cools off at the top
regions where the material sinks back down and heats up again. This p
mixing, or convection, that is driven by gravity and Jupiter’s internal heat
14. Watch the movie and identify the fastest moving eastward cloud ba
westward band (can either be a zone or belt).
a)
Switch to any still image and identify their names:
Fastest eastward:
Fastest westward:
b)
c)
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In which hemisphere(s) are they located?
Look again at the movie. Would you say that the fastest cloud ba
are zones or belts?
Wind Speeds
We will track THREE objects to measure their actual speeds. Exam
4. Note that you will be switching between the movie sequence and th
I. One of the dark elongated features, or hot spots, near the bord
II. One of the small dark round features at about the same latitud
III. One of the White Oval storms south of the GRS.
Image 4
There are several of each type to choose from. You only need to f
the above features or objects. You will be recording your measuremen

Choose any still image within the first 15 images. Choose a fe
record latitude (north-south measurement) of the feature.

Click on the movie and find the wind direction for that specific



Go back to the still image you looked at above. Record the ima
beginning image for measuring.
Look at the leading edge of your feature and record the start
longitude in the beginning image.
You will be tracking this feature until the last image it is still vis
image set. To track the object, you will be checking subsequen
o Note: these features are moving a lot faster than the GRS an
features, you may need to frequently check the images to m
the correct feature (choose an appropriate interval that allow
You do not need to record the numbers for those intermediat
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Find the last possible image where your feature is still visible. Use
feature always remains visible. Record the image number as you
the feature’s location in degrees (°) longitude.
In Table 2, determine the change in position of the feature by takin
ending and beginning position.
Find the difference in time between the ending and beginning ima
number difference between any two images needs to be changed
time between successive images equals 2 JD.
Find the wind speeds taking the distance and dividing by time. Th
units of °/JD.
Near the equator, a speed of 1 °/JD converts to 35 m/s. At latitud
south, I °/JD is roughly equal to 30 m/s. At 40°, north or south, th
25 m/s.
o Using the appropriate speed conversion for the latitude of your
speed to m/s.
To get a better understanding of the speeds, convert to mph (mile
2.24 mph.
DATA TABLE 1 – Measurements
Latitude
Wind
Image Longitude Image Longitude
Object
(° N/S)Direction Number in starting Number in ending
(E or W)(starting) image (ending) image
I. Large Dark
Hot Spot
II. Small,
Dark Feature
III. White Oval
DATA TABLE 2 – Calculations
Change in
Time Wind Speed
Wind Speed
Wind Speed
Longitude difference (°/JD) (m/s)
(mph)
(Distance, °) (JD)
I. Large Dark
Hot Spot
II. Small,
Dark Feature
III. White Oval
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15. Compare the wind speeds for the zones/belts that you just calcu
a) Which of the zones/belts has the highest wind speed?
b)
How do these wind speeds compare to the drift speeds of the
c)
Wind speeds in the jet streams of Earth are usually around 12
Table 2 compare with winds on Earth?
16. Go back to the movie and watch the small dark round features (l
Table 1). Describe what happens when they run into the Great R
Jupiter is a very dynamic and turbulent place. Many of the forces
are still not understood well. The fact that the Great Red Spot, Little
storms move much slower than the surrounding wind speeds indicate
the storms comes from much deeper layers within Jupiter.
12-13

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