While the paper tried to convey good information, it was not written well. It needs a lot of work.Running Head: PSYCHOPHAMACOLOGY AND ADDICTIONS
Psychopharmacology and addictions
PCN- 527
July 08, 2016
Brief History
Drugs and medicines have always been around us. Areas with psychoactive properties
plants, had people willing to take use of them, for pleasure or relief or for killing. The recorded
history filled with the psycho pharmaceuticals potent description, with others being outstanding.
Alcohol has universally been in use and presented itself as problematic among the Romans and
ancient Greeks. Records are also there of cannabis use in the Middle East ancient time. Anciently
Opium was also known, but it was restricted to medicinal use. Certainly Hemlock was also
known as Socrates met his death from a cup of hemlock (Wilkins, 2005).
There were also more exotic substances, extracts of belladonna or nightshade plants
referred to as atropine that were used everywhere from India to Rome as and as cosmetic. A time
women put drops of weaker solution in their eyes for the purpose of dilating their pupils and is
still in use by eye doctors today. Foxglove plant was another favorite extract used for the
treatment of various ailments as a poison. Mushrooms also provided our ancestors with
hallucinogenic interesting experience.
Some believed that the ancient Aryans holy drink mentioned in Vedas as Soma was
concoction that involved mushrooms. In the middle age alcohol was still used by the great gusto
in Europe Middle Ages. Europeans developed distillation process and added brands and other
liquors to the popular beer and wine around 1250. The early Middle aged, warriors and Arab
traders, introduced use of opium poppy to China and India. It was used as a medicine in China
but, a widespread habit for the rich and soldiers to bolster the fighting spirits in India. It was
primarily ingested as a drink and a time eaten (Uğurlu, 2012).
In the exploration age alcohol had developed to a serious social problem. This was the
sixteenth century. The Martin Luther worthies to King James 1 condemned drunkenness at the
large society continuing to see alcohol as God’s gift. Invariable failure was the attempt to its
control and the authority was limited to taxing and regulating its sale. In the 1800s Dr. Pablo
Mantegazzo made cocaine isolation from coca leaf and wrote about its wonders to fatigue
combat ion, impotence and depression.
Few decades later Sigmund Freud a Viennese physician praised it as a restorative and
anesthetic. Cocaine becomes a popular tonic formula for the popular tonic in US as Coca-Cola.
Coke used to contain sixty milligrams per eight ounce serving not until 1903 after it caused a
number of deaths due to overdose, for it to be outlawed in 1914. Opium became a more serious
issue in the 1800s. Chinese made efforts of stopping opium addiction in 1820 in the prohibiting it
importation. British declare war on china because they played culprits in the situation for the
protection of the opium trade, and ended with their market intact and Hong Kong piece of China
(Trigo, 2016).
Current trends or issues
Mental illness in the western countries, has contributed to more disability than all the
other illnesses such as cancer and heart diseases. By 2020 depression alone has been predicted to
be second largest disease burden contributor. It is astonishing of the number of people that are
mentally affected by health issues, with 25% of the adults estimated to experience the mental
health issue in most recent years, with this affecting not only the individuals but also their friends
and families. It has been found that out of every 17 adults 1 experience serious mental illness.
The new antidepressants are the most probable and frequently prescribed drugs treating
mental health issues. Even though there are no magical bullets for depression treatment or the
other conditions. The psychological therapy with pharmacotherapy is considered the most
beneficial treatment approach, for most psychiatric conditions, still with most unanswered
questions. Example to why do the antidepressants helps individuals yet having no other effects.
The antidepressants take four to six weeks to start showing depressive symptoms
improvement and it is still not understood why. Most people never respond to this first
antidepressant prescription, which forces them to trying different drugs before they find a thing
that works for them. There some other people who just do not improve as a result of
antidepressants. With the better understanding as to why people differing, more rapidly and
easily makes us able help people distress.
An area that has recently received interest has to individualize and treatment approach. We
have known of the genetic differences in the Cytochrome p450 enzymes and their break down
drug ability. The following general population falls into this categories:
1. Ultra-extensive metabolizers that break down certain drugs such current antidepressants.
2. The extensive metabolizers that break down drug fair quicks.
3. The Intermediate metabolizers that break drugs down slower than the two groups above
4. Finally it is the poor metabolizers that break drugs down slower than the other groups.
It is important to consider of someone receiving an antidepressant prescription, what would
really be the consequence if they were poor metabolizer given the same antidepressant for daily
dose for the antidepressant that may be build up for high blood levels that have wider side effect
range and feels really bad as it is not a positive outcome. Prior to the antidepressant prescription,
doctors take blood samples that determine what type of metabolizer a patient actually is.
Societal concerns or issues related to the topic
The recent Centers for Disease Control, report suggest that most one in every five
children ages between 5 and 17 have some sort of mental disorder. The bipolar incident disorder
in this adolescents and children has increased 40 times in the past decades, and it is estimated
that 1 in every 88 children are spectrum disorder autism. The reason there has been an increase in
the number is that there is no answer to the question. It is believed that the greater public is
aware and has contributed to the increased parent and teacher referral it is argued by others that
the increased change stem is the current criterion used for diagnosing purpose.
There are others that still suggest of the environmental factors, postnatal of prenatally
that contributes to the upsurge. The elderly and Psychopharmacology is the other population that
typically has been included in the clinical trial, for the safety determination or of the
psychotropic drug effectiveness to the elderly. Clinical trials have often excluded the multiple co
morbidities due to the little high-quality evidence that guides the prescribing for the older people,
which typically is for the elderly population. It has become a serious issue as the elderly
consume disproportionate number of the medicine prescription prescribed. Polypharmacy is the
use of multiple drugs, which is commonly in the elderly population. As the population is aging,
there some estimate potion for the aged 65 or the elderly who are 20% the United State
population. This population consumes 40% of the medication prescribed (Morgan, 2016).
Significance or relevance of topic to the counseling profession
Metabolism of drugs has often and slowly considered for the elderly population. Fewer
drugs can also produce same effect, either too much drugs or all often too resulting to side effects
variety. The greatest risk factor for the elderly population has fallen and broken bones, which
happens that the elderly get the dizzy from much drugs. There is evidence from the psychotropic
medication that reduces the bone density. This is usually a very complex area with the most
ethical and medical questions for those who gain the awareness about the issue facing
pharmacotherapy (Latagliata, 2016).
The counseling theory is an advanced study with a major theory in counseling field, as to
the historical persuasive exploration, upon the philosophies they are based upon. The counseling
method for individual and group counseling examines with a focus on the different clients
applicability in setting variety. The relationship that is between the specific theories and the
counseling application is also assessed. The counseling diverse community, makes students
become familiar with their cultural competent, that socially counsels’ the context examination
practices thorough the contexts examination.
The advanced counseling methods for individuals and groups, has course continuity for
the counseling method. The individual and group class emphasizes on the counseling skills
practice. Counseling for secondary school, focuses on the organizing, implementing, planning
and evaluation of the guidance program school counselor association model. The family system
therapy, the students apply a systemic clinical model for the family therapy practice.
Any future implications
Clinicians have often observed patients undergo addiction treatment and highly becoming
vulnerable for relapse when returning to the environment or context that addiction develops.
Clinical research have confirmed the cue that are associated with elicit physiological substance
abuse and drug craving. The Drug-stimulus Associations is formatting for the multistage
attributed addiction strongly responds to the drug learning process and the powerful inculcation
of the powerful drug association stimulation association (Coller, 2016).
The individuals taking drug will be perceived in the views present surrounding that will
significantly make the strong mental connection that is between the feature and surrounding to
the intense drug pleasure. The re- encounter for the features will subsequently be experienced as
a prompt for the seeking and taking of the drugs. It will be important to at least be consistent
with the accounts that expose addicted individuals to the cues they are associated with and the
elicit substance abuse that’s long with the physiological responses and the drug craving, that
change the activity levels of the involved brain regions, involved in memory and learning.
Uğurlu, T. T., Şengül, C. B., & Şengül, C. (2012). Psychopharmacology of
addiction. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar-Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 4(1), 3750.
Wilkins, J. N. (2005). Psychopharmacology for Addiction. Psychiatric Times,22(2), 55-55.
Coller, J. K., Barratt, D. T., & Somogyi, A. A. (2016). Clinically Significant Interactions with
Anti-addiction Agents. In Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of
Psychopharmacological Agents (pp. 565-577). Springer International Publishing.
Trigo, J. M., & Le Foll, B. (2016). Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enhances cueinduced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in
mice. Psychopharmacology, 233(10), 1815-1822.
Morgan, C. J. A., Freeman, T. P., Powell, J., & Curran, H. V. (2016). AKT1 genotype moderates
the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis
smokers. Translational psychiatry, 6(2), e738.
Latagliata, E. C., Saccoccio, P., Milia, C., & Puglisi-Allegra, S. (2016). Norepinephrine in
prelimbic cortex delays extinction of amphetamine-induced conditioned place
preference. Psychopharmacology, 233(6), 973-982.
Well, I can see what information you were trying to write about, but much of the paper was
poorly written. You tried to incorporate a lot of information that did not appear connected
to each other. The paper needs a lot of work.

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