See attached Study Guide. 100 multiple choice questions. Access to the textbook will be provided via VitalSource Bookshelf (searchable text). Accuracy is more important than timing.Please simply highlight the correct answer in the attached file. Access to the textbook will be provided once the work has been awarded.PSY 228
Social Psychology
Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives
Second Edition, 2011
ISBN-13: 9780205661060
David E. Rohall, Melissa A. Milkie, and Jeffrey W. Lucas
Pearson/Prentice Hall
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without written
permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotation
in review.
PSY 228 Social Psychology
Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. A comparison of suicide rates rates across countries is more likely to be the study of
a. microsociology
b. macrosociology
c. psychology
d. social psychology
2. Structural functionalism is associated with ____________ while the conflict perspective is
associated with ____________.
a. Karl Marx; Emile Durkheim
b. C. Wright Mills; Emile Durkheim
c. Emile Durkheim; Auguste Comte
d. Emile Durkheim; Karl Marx
3. The field of sociology was first defined by ____________.
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Herbert Blumer
c. C. Wright Mills
d. Auguste Comte
4. Which early sociologist emphasized the role of society in the development of the self?
a. George Herbert Mead
b. Karl Marx
c. Georg Simmer
d. Herbert Blumer
5. Which sociological social psychology perspective is likely to emphasize the importance of
interactions within groups?
a. symbolic interaction
b. social structure and personality
c. group processes
d. structural functionalism
PSY 228 Social Psychology
6. What year was the term sociology coined?
a. 1776
b. 1838
c. 1895
d. 1901
7. A country’s flag represents which element of culture?
a. language
b. norms
c. symbols
d. values and beliefs
8. ____________ is the study of the effects of society on social-psychological processes, also
known as sociological social psychology.
a. sociology
b. microsociology
c. macrosociology
d. psychology
9. A society’s set of unique patterns of behavior and beliefs.
a. culture
b. heritage
c. tradition
d. values
10. Networks are important to the study of the effects of society on individuals’ thoughts,
feelings and behavior because:
a. they give people more prestigious jobs.
b. they give people more friends.
c. they provide important links between people in society.
d. they provide ways of managing life problems.
PSY 228 Social Psychology
11. Franklin did not think much about how the economy or society affects his life until he lost
his job. Franklin’s change in attitude about the economy best reflects which principle from
the social structure and personality perspective?
a. proximity principle
b. psychology principle
c. propinquity principle
d. components principle
12. Which of the following is considered a major dimension of group processes?
a. legitimacy
b. justice
c. power
d. All of the above.
13. A group of friends getting together for dinner represents a ____________ group while a group
of people at your work represents a ____________ group.
a. primary; secondary
b. reference; primary
c. primary; reference
d. secondary; reference
14. Element of the social structure and personality perspective referring to how individuals
internalize proximal experiences.
a. sociology principle
b. proximity principle
c. social scripts
d. psychology principle
15. A two-person group is called a ____________.
a. dyad
b. triad
c. partnership
d. None of the above.
PSY 228 Social Psychology
16. Perspective within symbolic interactionism that focuses on the quantitative study of social
interaction processes because of the stable nature of social life.
a. Chicago School
b. Indiana School
c. Iowa School
d. both b and c
17. Fairness in group interactions.
a. legitimacy
b. justice
c. power
d. None of the above.
18. People we are close to and interact with regularly are considered to be our ____________
a. primary
b. secondary
c. reference
d. social
19. You are studying student attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol consumption using a series of
items in which respondents were asked to respond using categories ranging from 1
(strongly agree) to 4 (strongly disagree). These items represent which type of variable?
a. ordinal
b. interval
c. ratio
d. categorical
20. The research technique called “autoethnograpy” is associated with which social
psychological perspective?
a. symbolic interaction
b. social structure and personality
c. group processes
d. structural functionalism
PSY 228 Social Psychology
21. Social scientists must always be concerned with ___________ and ___________ to accurately
capture the phenomena in questions.
a. truth and reliability
b. probability and validity
c. reliability and validity
d. truth and validity
22. Quantitative research includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a. experiments
b. interviews
c. surveys
d. data analysis
23. A researcher wants to explore the connection between college campus drinking and sexual
assault nation-wide. The most effective method of measurement would be _____________.
a. interviews
b. controlled experiments
c. surveys
d. None of the above.
24. Participants of an experiment that are not exposed to the independent variable.
a. control group
b. convenience sample
c. focus group
d. experimental group
25. A type of quantitative research procedure in which investigators control participants’
exposure to an independent variable.
a. field research
b. laboratory experiment
c. experiment
d. ethnography
PSY 228 Social Psychology
26. Participants of an experiment that are exposed to an independent variable.
a. control group
b. convenience sample
c. focus group
d. experimental group
27. A form of qualitative study in which researchers directly observe people’s behavior.
a. field research
b. laboratory experiment
c. experiment
d. ethnography
28. The Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment is based on a study that began in ____________
that was primarily led by ____________.
a. 1957; Sewell
b. 1962; Nielson
c. 1965; Granovetter
d. 1973; Kohn
29. Who gets the most status in groups based on Bales’ research in social exchanges in small
a. Those who listen and care the most for the other members.
b. Those who are perceived as being the smartest.
c. Those who are perceived as the best managers.
d. Those who contribute the most to the group.
30. Which of the following is NOT a job condition that has long-term impacts on our personality
in the Kohn and Schooler model of status attainment?
a. hourly wage
b. closeness of supervision
c. substantive complexity
d. routinization
PSY 228 Social Psychology
31. Based on research and theory using status characteristics, which of the following individuals
will likely receive the highest status in a task-oriented group, regardless of his/her
a. a White woman
b. a White man
c. a minority woman
d. a minority man
32. According to research by Lucas and others, how can individuals with lower cultural status
best gain status in groups?
a. Give that person legitimate authority to lead the group.
b. The person should focus on the success of the group, rather then her own interests.
c. The person should provide a “kick back” to others in a group to get their leadership
d. both a and b
33. Which characteristics are associated with the most power in networks?
a. money
b. leadership ability
c. ability to exclude people
d. centrality
34. Service workers manage status inequalities by employing the following technique(s):
a. emphasize moral superiority
b. they control the pace of work thus controlling their patrons
c. by gaining respectful behavior from patrons
d. All of the above.
35. According to West and Zimmerman, the way in which we engage in conscious and
unconscious gender behaviors is known as _____________.
a. gender performance
b. doing gender
c. gender roles
d. gendering
PSY 228 Social Psychology
36. Research in the 1960s showed a considerable overlap in ___________ and ___________
a. fathers’; sons’
b. fathers’; daughters’
c. mothers’; daughters’
d. mothers’; sons’
37. How do you categorize the response, “I am an emotional person” according to the TwentyStatements Test?
a. physical self
b. social self
c. reflective self
d. oceanic self
38. What category is most often used among modern college students taking the TwentyStatements Test?
a. physical self
b. reflective self
c. social self
d. oceanic self
39. Which of the following groups report the lowest levels of self-esteem?
a. poor children
b. middle-class children
c. poor adolescents
d. middle-class adolescents
40. How did Joanne Nagel explain the increase in the number of people identifying themselves
as “American Indian” when the birth rates stayed the same?
a. Legal changes made scholarships more available to American Indians.
b. The development of the “Red Power” movement shifted negative stereotypes of
c. Urbanization made it easier for people to find and interact with other people that had
some American-Indian heritage.
d. All of the above.
PSY 228 Social Psychology
41. According to social identity theory, when do we allow our group memberships to influence
our own behavior and judge other people’s behavior?
a. when laws make it necessary
b. when our group membership is relevant during a social interaction
c. when we are not allowed to use our group membership as part of our
d. Our group memberships never influence our behavior and judgments of others.
42. According to social identity theory, which of the following social situations will make your
identity as a democratic leader on campus most relevant?
a. in a sociology class
b. at a Young Republicans rally
c. at home with your family
d. in your dorm room
43. Research generally shows that people modify their _____________ to correspond with their
sense of self.
a. behaviors
b. attitudes
c. emotions
d. None of the above.
44. The use of narratives and personal-stories is important to the process of _____________.
a. symbolic interaction process
b. identity control theory
c impression management
d. All of the above.
45. The core principle of identity control theory is _____________.
a. that self consistency is key to reaffirming identity
b. we are constantly seeking confirmation of self identity
c. changes in our identity are small and gradual
d. All of the above.
PSY 228 Social Psychology
46. ____________ refers to our personal desire to maintain an identity.
a. Interactional commitment
b. Affective commitment
c. Desire commitment
d. None of the above.
47. According to Irving Goffman, impression management is the process of _____________.
a. impressing one’s personality upon a boss or manager
b. managing one’s impressions of others
c. managing one’s emotions, demeanor and behavior to give a certain impression to
d. None of the above.
48. Socialization is a process that _____________.
a. begins at around two years of age
b. lasts until the young twenties
c. begins at birth and continues through the life cycle
d. both a and b
49. From the sociological point of view, Mead viewed play and games as important to children’s
social development because they _____________.
a. give them practice and agility
b. increase motor skills
c. help develop mental toughness
d. allow children to learn and practice taking the role of others
50. What is the first agent of socialization?
a. media
b. peers
c. family
d. education
51. Which of the following best represents a “turning point” in someone’s life from a life-course
a . a man who breaks his arm during a fight
b. a woman who loses an important tennis match
c. a man who delays getting married for a decade due to a family tragedy
d. a woman who loses her first job out of college due to poor performance
PSY 228 Social Psychology
52. Sampson and Laub’s research on the impact of World War II (WWII) on men’s lives generally
showed that _____________.
a . WWII served as a turning point for all American soldiers
b. IQ was the biggest factor in finding work after the war
c. WWII only had an impact on soldiers if they served overseas
d. most of the positive effects of war on the lives of soldiers came through their
experience overseas, in-service training and access to programs like the GI Bill
53. The study of humans in a particular culture progressing through a relatively predictable
pattern of stages is referred to as?
a. developmental stages
b. birth cohorts
c. life stages
d. rites of passage
54. Norman Denzin found that even young children, ___________ to ___________ months, can
participate in a “conversation of gestures.”
a. 2; 4
b. 4; 6
c. 6; 8
d. 8; 24
55. What role does children’s culture play in the maintenance of society?
a. Children adapt elements of adult culture to build their own culture routines.
b. Children improvise adult culture to meet the needs of their particular peer groups.
c. Children’s improvisations allow for the development and change in culture over time.
d. All of the above.
56. Ausdale and Feagin’s research on children learning racism is important because
a. it shows how children use race as a way to differentiate between peers
b. it shows that children apply adult biases and racism in their day-to-day interactions
c. it shows that children use their own race as a way to gain acceptance by teachers
d. both a and b
PSY 228 Social Psychology
57. Correll’s research found that gender segregation in the workforce is largely due to
a. women’s desire for more flexible jobs
b. culture constraining women’s career choices
c. women performed lower on contrast sensitivity tests than men
d. gender segregation does not exist
58. A nurse regulary brings a six pack of beer to work and consumes it over his shift, brushing
his teeth to keep his breath clean. According to Goffman, what kind of behavior is he
engaging in?
a. passing
b. covering
c. stigma
d. retrospective interpretations
59. John regularly gambles on the weekends, often finding himself spending more money than
he is making. When asked about it, he starts to relate how he always had problems resisting
temptation to gamble on things, even when he was a kid. What kind of behavior is John
engaging in?
a. passing
b. covering
c. stigma
d. retrospective interpretations
60. Most college students represent which type of person in Merton’s typology of deviance?
a. conformists
b. innovators
c. ritualists
d. retreatists
61. Which of the following best exemplifies white collar crimes?
a. stealing a purse
b. simple assault
c. telling a lie to your friend
d. embezzling from work
PSY 228 Social Psychology
62. Which of the following theories interprets the responses of others as the most significant
factor in understanding how deviant behavior is created and sustained?
a. differential association theory
b. social control theory
c. labeling theory
d. structural strain theory
63. People who neither accept the goals of the larger society nor the means to achieve those
a. retreatist
b. conformist
c. outsider
d. ritualist
64. Component of social control theory referring to emotional bonds with other people in society.
a. commitment
b. attachment
c. involvement
d. None of the above.
65. Component of social control theory referring to an individual’s desire to obtain societal goals
through legitimate means.
a. commitment
b. attachment
c. involvement
d. belief
66. Theory that deviance results when individuals’ bonds with conventional society are weakened
in some way.
a. Agents of Social Control
b. Differential Association Theory
c. Labeling Theory
d. social control theory
PSY 228 Social Psychology
67. Marital status fits into which component of the stress process?
a. stressors
b. social and economic characteristics
c. outcomes
d. mediators and moderators
68. Manuel’s job loss really did not bother him because he did not like his boss. However, he
really started getting anxious when he stopped getting his paycheck. In this example, the
effect of job loss on anxiety is ______________ by loss of income.
a. distressed
b. moderated
c. mediated
d. constrained
69. Which of the following coping strategies emphasize patients’ attempts to rebel against
asylum staff?
a. colonization
b. conversion
c. withdrawal
d. intransigence
70. Jenna Howard found that those with more social and fiscal capital were able to ___________.
a. access mental health services at higher rates
b. successfully “de-label” themselves as mentally ill
c. use less medication in the treatment of mental illness
d. All of the above.
71. The study of the social arrangements that affect mental illness and its consequences.
a. sociology of mental health
b. malaise
c. medicalization of deviance
d. epidemiology of mental health
PSY 228 Social Psychology
72. Exposure to poor community conditions such as crime, poor living conditions and lack of
a. malaise
b. intransigence
c. ambient hazards
d. chronic strain
73. The study of the distribution of mental health disorders and the distress across social groups.
a. sociology of mental health
b. malaise
c. medicalization of deviance
d. epidemiology of mental health
74. A psychological state of unhappiness associated with living conditions in particularly rural or
urban areas.
a. malaise
b. intransigence
c. depression
d. chronic stress
75. A way in which patients manage institutionalization by showing that their institution is a
desirable place to live.
a. conversion
b. colonization
c. intransigence
d. None of the above.
76. Nathan started attending KKK meetings when he saw some of his African-American
neighbors getting better jobs than him. Which of the following theories best explains Nathan’s
negative attitude toward African Americans?
a. social distance theory
b. symbolic interaction
c. Blumer’s theory of group position
d. status construction theory
PSY 228 Social Psychology
77. Recent research using the Bogardus social distance scale shows which group to be most
“distant” among American students?
a. Arabs
b. Latinos
c. African Americans
d. Asians
78. According to the text, ____________ is how close we feel to other people.
a. social proximity
b. a bond
c. telepathy
d. social distance
79. The study of what people do on a day-to-day basis is the study of ____________.
a. productive time
b. free time
c. time use
d. social time
80. Theory that prejudicial attitudes reflect a group’s position in society.
a. status construction theory
b. theory of group position
c. modified labeling theory
d. colonization theory
81. When people do more with the time that they have available to them.
a. time use
b. free time
c. productive time
d. time deepening
82. Unequal treatment of women that goes unnoticed.
a. subtle sexism
b. unconscious sexism
c. unintentional sexism
d. underlying sexism
PSY 228 Social Psychology
83. Time used for leisure activities like reading, exercising, watching television, listening to the
radio and other activities that we do for our own pleasure.
a. time use
b. free time
c. productive time
d. time deepening
84. A positive or negative evaluation of an object, a person or group or an idea.
a. attitude
b. prejudice
c. opinion
d. belief
85. At a college basketball game, Joe finds himself doing the wave and yelling more than he has
ever done in his life. According to Louis Zurcher’s work on emotions in society, why is Joe
acting like this at the game when he never does such things in his home life?
a. Joe is waiting for an opportunity to break societal rules about emotions present at
most games.
b. Joe lost control of himself because of the excitement around him.
c. Joe probably drank too much alcohol at the game.
d. Joe is probably following the emotional script present at most games.
86. According to exchange theory and research, which of the following situations is most likely to
produce a positive emotion?
a. An exchange in which you get as much as you gave.
b. An exchange in which you get less than you gave.
c. An exchange in which people get the amount equal to their position in the group.
d. All of these exchanges will produce a positive emotion.
87. According to Scheff, which of the following emotions is essential to making people follow the
rules of society?
a. anger
b. excitement
c. happiness
d. shame
PSY 228 Social Psychology
88. Following Smelser’s value-added theory, why wouldn’t we expect a poor, third-world nation,
based on a barter economy, to develop mass hysteria over stock market problems like the
U.S. did in the 1920s?
a. lack of structural conduciveness
b. lack of structural strain
c. lack of generalized belief
d. action of social control
89. Which of the following theories of collective behavior is most likely to incorporate larger
social-structural conditions in predicting the development of a social movement?
a. political process theory
b. value-added theory
c. resource mobilization theory
d. All of the above.
90. Which of the following jobs demand high levels of emotion work?
a. waitress
b. nurse
c. flight attendant
d. All of the above.
91. A heightened sense of excitement produced by a feeling of belonging in society.
a. emotional cues
b. emotional scripts
c. emotional energies
d. situational cues
92. Expectations about when and how to act excited or angry or any other emotion.
a. emotional cues
b. emotional scripts
c. emotional energies
d. situational cues
PSY 228 Social Psychology
93. According to Smelser’s value-added theory, what kind of collective behavior was the
American stock market crash in 1929?
a. panic
b. craze
c. hostile outburst
d. norm-oriented social movement
94. The vast majority of protests and other collective events have which kind of dispersal?
a. active dispersal
b. emergency dispersal
c. routine dispersal
d. coerced dispersal
95. Public radio, radio stations that rely, in part, on listener support to stay in business, run the
risk of what problem?
a. a social dilemma
b. mass hysteria
c. group conformity
d. the free rider problem
96. When large numbers of people become obsessed with something like the purchase of a
product or an activity.
a. mania
b. craze
c. hysteria
d. panic
97. An alliance of actors formed for the purpose of achieving some goal.
a. acting crowds
b. expressive crowd
c. team
d. coalition
PSY 228 Social Psychology
98. Movements to change the way things are regulated in society.
a. social movement
b. new social movement
c. norm-oriented movement
d. value-oriented movement
99. Any type of mass violence or killings.
a. hostile outburst
b. craze
c. hysteria
d. milling
100. A key ingredient of contagious mental unity, referring to situations in which people lose
their inhibitions to act and the tempo of their behavior increases.
a. intensity of behavior
b. panic
c. irrational behavior
d. hostile outbursts

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