The instructions are in the file. NEED IT IN 3 HRSName: ______________________________
POSC 301 Political Research I
Homework #6 – Crosstabulations #1 – Bivariate Analyses
This homework assignment covers using bivariate crosstabulations to test simple hypotheses. You will use the 2008 American National
Election study file.
1.
2.
Getting Started in SPSS
A
If you are working off-campus, you must first download and install the Virtual Workstation plug-in. Most on-campus computers
already have the plug-in installed. If the plug-in is already installed, go to Step B below.
1. Go to the Towson University web site (www.towson.edu/ots)
2. in the Search Towson window, type Virtual Workspace and press enter
3. Click on the link for Virtual Workspace and follow the instructions for your type of computer or device. If you have
problems loading or running Virtual Workspace, contact Student Computing Services (401-704-5151) or go to Cook
Library Room 35 with your computer.
B.
To Access SPSS with Virtual Workspace
1 Start your browser
2 On Campus: Click on the Windows START button and type SPSS in the Search Programs and Files window
3 Off Campus:
4 Login with your TU NetID
a. Go to Virtual Workspace https://virtualworkspace.towson.edu/Citrix/XenApp/auth/logon.asp
b.
c. Select SPSS
C.
Close the two dialog boxes that open when SPSS loads.
D.
Open the file for this homework assignment by clicking
 File
 Open
 Data
 In the File Name box: \cla-server2roberts and click Open
 Select the ANES folder
 Select the file ANES2008.sav
E.
Before you get started with the questions below, you should set options that control how SPSS lists variables:
 Edit
 Options
 Under Variable Lists click Display Names and Alphabetical
 OK and then click OK to close the dialog box that appears about changing variable names.
The Federal Deficit in the 2008 Election
The Tea Party did not emerge as a force in politics until the 2010 mid term elections. Nevertheless, dissatisfaction with the level of
the Federal debt and deficit was growing in 2008. Generally, republicans are seen more as “deficit watchers” than democrats
which leads to an interesting question in the 2008 election. Were voters who wanted to cut the Federal deficit more likely to vote
for McCain or Obama in 2008? The following exercises run crosstabulations and generate statistical tests of various hypotheses
about how the deficit affected vote choice in 2008.
Hypothesis 1a: Voters who favor reducing the Federal deficit were more likely to vote for McCain than Obama in 2008.
In SPSS
 Analyze
 Descriptive Statistics
 Crosstabs
 Select V085044x and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Row Variable
 Select V085074R and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Column Variable
 Statistics – Select Chi Square, and all the Nominal and all the Ordinal tests & Continue
 Cells – Select Observed Counts (default) and Column Percentages & Continue
 OK
A
Click on the crosstabulation table for Vote Choice by Favor/Oppose Reducing the Federal Deficit to select the table, then
right click and select copy. Paste the table in the space below and size it to fit the space.
B.
What percentage of the respondents who opposed reducing the Federal deficit voted for ____Obama
C.
Does this seem to support or refute Hypothesis 1a?
D.
Fill in the following test values from the SPSS output:
Chi Square:
Cramer’s V
Kendall’s Tau B:
Kendall’s Tau C:
E.
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
____ Refute
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
Which test is the appropriate measure of association to use for this table?
____ Cramer’s V ____ Kendall’s Tau B
F.
____ Support
____ McCain?
____ Kendall’s Tau C
What do you conclude about hypothesis 1a? Explain your answer:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Hypothesis 1b: Voters who favor raising taxes to reduce the Federal deficit were more likely to vote for Obama than McCain in
2008.
In SPSS
 Analyze
 Descriptive Statistics
 Crosstabs
 Reset
 Select V085044x and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Row Variable
 Select V085075R and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Column Variable
 Statistics – Select Chi Square, and all the Nominal and all the Ordinal tests & Continue
 Cells – Select Observed Counts (default) and Column Percentages & Continue
 OK
G.
What percentage of the respondents who favored raising taxes to reduce the deficit voted for ____Obama
H.
Does this seem to support or refute Hypothesis 1b?
I.
Fill in the following test values from the SPSS output:
Chi Square:
Cramer’s V
Kendall’s Tau B:
Kendall’s Tau C:
J.
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
____ Support
____ McCain?
____ Refute
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
What do you conclude about hypothesis 1b? Explain your answer:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Hypothesis 1c: Voters who favor cutting military spending to reduce the Federal deficit were more likely to vote for Obama than
McCain in 2008.
In SPSS
 Analyze
 Descriptive Statistics
 Crosstabs
 Reset
 Select V085044x and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Row Variable
 Select V085076R and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Column Variable
 Statistics – Select Chi Square, and all the Nominal and all the Ordinal tests & Continue
 Cells – Select Observed Counts (default) and Column Percentages & Continue
 OK
K.
What percentage of the respondents who favored raising taxes to reduce the deficit voted for ____Obama
L.
Does this seem to support or refute Hypothesis 1b?
M.
Fill in the following test values from the SPSS output:
Chi Square:
Cramer’s V
Kendall’s Tau B:
Kendall’s Tau C:
N.
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
____ Support
____ Refute
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
What do you conclude about hypothesis 1c? Explain your answer:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
____ McCain?
Hypothesis 1d: Voters who favor cutting other programs reduce the Federal deficit were more likely to vote for McCain than
Obama in 2008.
In SPSS
 Analyze
 Descriptive Statistics
 Crosstabs
 Reset
 Select V085044x and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Row Variable
 Select V085077R and use the arrow to move it to the window for the Column Variable
 Statistics – Select Chi Square, and all the Nominal and all the Ordinal tests & Continue
 Cells – Select Observed Counts (default) and Column Percentages & Continue
 OK
O.
What percentage of the respondents who opposed cutting other programs to reduce the deficit voted for
____Obama ____ McCain?
P.
Does this seem to support or refute Hypothesis 1d?
Q.
Fill in the following test values from the SPSS output:
Chi Square:
Cramer’s V
Kendall’s Tau B:
Kendall’s Tau C:
R.
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
Value: _______
____ Support
____ Refute
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
What do you conclude about hypothesis 1d? Explain your answer:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3.
Issues in the 2008 Election
Various voting behavior theories state that popular issues affect a voter’s vote choice. Below is a list of variables that measure
public opinion on a variety of issues from the 2008 American National Election study.
V085080x
V085081
V085086
V085209
V085210
V085211
V085215x
Has the income gap between rich and poor increased or decreased in the last 20 years?
Do you favor or oppose limits on foreign imports?
Abortion self placement scale.
Do you favor or oppose the government’s handling of the war in Afghanistan?
Do you favor or oppose the government’s handling of the war in Iraq?
Do you favor or oppose the government’s handling efforts to reduce terrorism?
Do you think that crime in the US has increased or decreased compared to one year ago?
Use SPSS to determine which of these issues had the greatest effect on vote choice in the 2008 election. The following SPSS
commands will create seven crosstabulations with the associated statistical tests – a lot of output! Wade through this output and
respond to the questions below.
In SPSS
 Analyze
 Descriptive Statistics
 Crosstabs
 Reset
 Row Variable:
V085044x
 Column Variables: V085080x V085081 V085086 V85209 V085210 V085211 V085215x
 Statistics – Select Chi Square, and all the Nominal and all the Ordinal tests & Continue
 Cells – Select Observed Counts (default) and Column Percentages & Continue
 OK
A.
Complete the following table with the appropriate statistical tests:
Variable
Chi Square
V085080x
Value:
Indicate which measure is the appropriate measure
of association and show its value.
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
V085081
Value:
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
V085086
Value:
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
V085209
Value:
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
V085210
Value:
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
V085211
Value:
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
V085215x
Value:
_____
df: _______
Probability (Asymp. Sig.): __________
B.
Which issue most affected the voter’s vote choice during the 2008 election? Explain your answer using information from the
table above.
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________

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