Instruction
One of the many tasks involved in writing a dissertation or a research article is being able to justify the choice of one methodology over others. Just as critical to the feasibility of a study is the stated rationale for selecting a specific research design. This week, you are introduced to two research designs that have several features in common; there are also stark contrasts that are identifiable.
For this week’s assignment, consider what you have learned about the case study and phenomenological research designs. Using the same research problem developed in Week 1, how could you use these designs to gain insights to fulfill the purpose of your study?
Begin by selecting the approach that best fits the problem. Use the resources provided and at least three other peer-reviewed articles to defend your choice (two pages minimum). Create a one-page critique of the other research design that includes arguments why the design may not suitable for researching your problem. Include a summary of the key arguments for your choice.
Length: 3-4 pages
Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy1

Introduction
Phenomenology’s Methodological Invitation

Kalpana Ram and Christopher Houston

What is phenomenology? And why should anthropologists, as well as students
of history, psychology, education, or political economy be interested in it? Within
philosophy, phenomenology is as diverse as its practitioners. Indeed, Moran (2000:
3) in an introduction to philosophical traditions of phenomenology finds it impor-
tant to warn readers not to overstate the degree to which phenomenology “coheres
into an agreed method, or accepts one theoretical outlook, or one set of philo-
sophical theses about consciousness, knowledge, and the world.” Some of this di-
versity continues to be a feature of anthropological uses of phenomenology, as we
show here. Yet we also argue for a heuristic narrowing of the range of its mean-
ings. We do so in order to widen its potential applicability, making it more in-
structive to anthropology as well as to aligned disciplines. What might appear to
be a paradox—restricting meaning in order to expand its use—is in fact in keep-
ing with phenomenology’s own teachings, and we argue for this in some detail
in this introduction. For preliminary purposes, we offer a serviceable definition
of phenomenology: phenomenology is an investigation of how humans perceive,
experience, and comprehend the sociable, materially assembled world that they
inherit at infancy and in which they dwell.

Framed in this way, phenomenology in anthropology is a theory of percep-
tion and experience that pertains to every man, woman, and child in every so-
ciety. As such, it is relevant not just to locals in the fieldwork sites that anthropolo-
gists step into and out of, but also to anthropologists and philosophers in their
own regional lives, surrounded like everyone everywhere by significant others,
human and non- human. Phenomenology therefore has a decidedly universalis-
tic dimension. But it is also determinedly particularistic. The phenomenology we
privilege sets out to show how experience and perception are constituted through
social and practical engagements. There is a temporal, cumulative dimension to
phenomenological descriptions of people’s activities and concerns, which comes
through most profoundly in phenomenology’s subtle vocabulary of the orienta-
tions that inhabit our bodies and guide people’s actions and perspectives.

Such a developmental account is necessarily also particular to both time and
place. In this combination of the universal and the particular, phenomenology

Ram, K., & Houston, C. (Eds.). (2015). Phenomenology in anthropology : A sense of perspective. Indiana University Press.
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2 | Phenomenology in Anthropology

contains elements of anthropology’s origi nal charter that sought to maintain a
sense of human generalities while pursuCORRESPONDENCE Open Access

Developing longitudinal qualitative designs:
lessons learned and recommendations for health
services research
Lynn Calman1, Lisa Brunton1 and Alex Molassiotis1,2*

Abstract

Background: Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but
the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We reflect on
the strategies used in a longitudinal qualitative study to explore the experience of symptoms in cancer patients and
their carers, following participants from diagnosis for twelve months; we highlight ethical, practical, theoretical and
methodological issues that need to be considered and addressed from the outset of a longitudinal qualitative
study.

Results: Key considerations in undertaking longitudinal qualitative projects in health research, include the use of
theory, utilizing multiple methods of analysis and giving consideration to the practical and ethical issues at an early
stage. These can include issues of time and timing; data collection processes; changing the topic guide over time;
recruitment considerations; retention of staff; issues around confidentiality; effects of project on staff and patients,
and analyzing data within and across time.

Conclusions: As longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in health services research, the
methodological and practical challenges particular to health care settings need more robust approaches and
conceptual improvement. We provide recommendations for the use of such designs. We have a particular focus on
cancer patients, so this paper will have particular relevance for researchers interested in chronic and life limiting
conditions.

Keywords: Cancer, Health care, Users’ experiences, Interviews, Longitudinal studies, Research, Qualitative, Research
design, Serial interview

Longitudinal qualitative research (LQR) has been an emer-
ging methodology over the last decade with methodo-
logical discussion and debate taking place within social
research [1]. Longitudinal qualitative research is distin-
guished from other qualitative approaches by the way in
which time is designed into the research process, making
change a key focus for analysis [1]. LQR answers qualitative
questions about the lived experience of change, or some-
times stability, over time. Findings can establish the pro-
cesses by which this experience is created and illuminates
the causes and consequences of change. Qualitative re-
search is about why and how health care is experienced

and LQR focuses on how and why these experiences
change over time. In contrast to longitudinal quantitative
methodologies LQR focuses on individual narratives and
trajectories and can capture critical moments and pro-
cesses involved in change. LQR is also particularly helpful
in capturing “transitions” in care; for example, while
researchers are beginning to more clearly map the cancer
journey or pathway SAGE Research Methods Video

Researching Diffusion of Innovations Using a Mixed

Methods Design

Contributors: W. T. Foster

Pub. Date: 2016

Product: SAGE Research Methods Video

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473975736

Methods: Mixed methods, Sampling, Ethical approval

Keywords: access to computers, anxiety, behavior change, change management, computer literacy,

computer-assisted instruction, diffusion of innovation, education, funding of schools, microcomputers,

motivation, perception (psychology), practices, strategies, and tools, professional behavior, public schools,

School administration, School boards, School district size, Supporters, teacher attitudes, teacher leadership,

technology in the classroom

Disciplines: Business and Management, Education, Psychology, Sociology

Access Date: January 11, 2023

Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Online ISBN: 9781473975736

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473975736

Hi, my name is Tad Foster. I’m a Professor at Indiana State University in the Department of Human

Resource Development. I’m going to talk to you today about a research project that I did several

years ago– in fact, one of my earlier research projects– in which I used mixed methods. The deci-

sion to use that technique was based on the kinds of information

that I was looking for. We’ll get into that in just a moment. For today, for this presentation, I’m going

to give you a little bit of the background– a little bit of the context of this study– but we’re going to

focus our attention on the design, the procedures that were used, the data collection, data analysis,

and then wrap up on the findings and conclusions. We’ll end with the lessons that I learned,

and there were several lessons in this project. In practically every project you do there will be multiple

lessons, some of which you intended to get because you were asking certain questions of your sub-

jects and of your design, but others that you’re going to learn because you have those oh, dang mo-

ments– or some other– that have taught you

something that you weren’t expecting to learn. In this particular case, we’re looking at the microcom-

puter. Back in the day when I did this, this would have been the way we would have talked. I did a

study on the use of the microcomputer

by public schools teachers in the high schools of Illinois. I basically was able to scan the entire state

by using a specific selection process of the school districts that were going to be employed. What I

was looking at was based on the work of E. M. Rogers. I was trying to find out what was going on

at the psychological level with teachers as they were thinking about this innovation. Rogers wrote

several books on the issue of diffusion of innovations. How do innovations start from, they’re out

there in the world and we become aware of them to the point at which it’s actuallSAGE Research Methods Video

Researching Diffusion of Innovations Using a Mixed

Methods Design

Contributors: W. T. Foster

Pub. Date: 2016

Product: SAGE Research Methods Video

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473975736

Methods: Mixed methods, Sampling, Ethical approval

Keywords: access to computers, anxiety, behavior change, change management, computer literacy,

computer-assisted instruction, diffusion of innovation, education, funding of schools, microcomputers,

motivation, perception (psychology), practices, strategies, and tools, professional behavior, public schools,

School administration, School boards, School district size, Supporters, teacher attitudes, teacher leadership,

technology in the classroom

Disciplines: Business and Management, Education, Psychology, Sociology

Access Date: January 11, 2023

Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Online ISBN: 9781473975736

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473975736

Hi, my name is Tad Foster. I’m a Professor at Indiana State University in the Department of Human

Resource Development. I’m going to talk to you today about a research project that I did several

years ago– in fact, one of my earlier research projects– in which I used mixed methods. The deci-

sion to use that technique was based on the kinds of information

that I was looking for. We’ll get into that in just a moment. For today, for this presentation, I’m going

to give you a little bit of the background– a little bit of the context of this study– but we’re going to

focus our attention on the design, the procedures that were used, the data collection, data analysis,

and then wrap up on the findings and conclusions. We’ll end with the lessons that I learned,

and there were several lessons in this project. In practically every project you do there will be multiple

lessons, some of which you intended to get because you were asking certain questions of your sub-

jects and of your design, but others that you’re going to learn because you have those oh, dang mo-

ments– or some other– that have taught you

something that you weren’t expecting to learn. In this particular case, we’re looking at the microcom-

puter. Back in the day when I did this, this would have been the way we would have talked. I did a

study on the use of the microcomputer

by public schools teachers in the high schools of Illinois. I basically was able to scan the entire state

by using a specific selection process of the school districts that were going to be employed. What I

was looking at was based on the work of E. M. Rogers. I was trying to find out what was going on

at the psychological level with teachers as they were thinking about this innovation. Rogers wrote

several books on the issue of diffusion of innovations. How do innovations start from, they’re out

there in the world and we become aware of them to the point at which it’s actuallEditorial

Aconversation withMax vanManen on phenomenology in its
original sense

In this special issue, Nursing and Health Sciences shares a
range of qualitative research studies undertaken by new
and experienced researchers in the field of nursing and
health sciences. This editorial is presented as an interview
with Max van Manen, Emeritus Professor in Research
Methods, Pedagogy, and Curriculum Studies at the Department
of Secondary Education at the University of Alberta and
Adjunct Professor at the University of Victoria, Canada. Max
van Manen is renowned internationally for his extensive works:
books, papers, presentations, workshops, and courses on phe-
nomenology, theory, methodology, and practice. As noted by
Janice Morse, in the Developing Qualitative Inquiry series, he
is the world’s champion of phenomenological theory and meth-
odology in education and the human sciences.

Max has been involved in phenomenology since he was an
adolescent in the Netherlands where, at school, he read works
by Sartre, Camus, Bollnow, and other related philosophical,
phenomenological, and literary authors fashionable at that
time. He says, “as a youngman I had quite an interest in philos-
ophy and phenomenological texts that influenced my later
working life in teaching and curriculum studies and research
methods.”As a university professor he soon offered a graduate
course in qualitative phenomenological research methods with
an emphasis on phenomenological writing, and aimed to help
students to understand phenomenology in its inceptual
(originary) philosophical sense.Max’s clear, articulate, and pas-
sionate expositions of phenomenological methodology and the
phenomenalities of lived experiences are memorable to those
who have heard him speak or have read any of his texts.

In this interview, Isabel Higgins and Pamela van der Riet
invited Max to consider the advice he might give to graduate
students practicing phenomenology. We asked this of Max with
concerns about what is currently being reported as phenomeno-
logical research and how to increase the depth of understanding
and engagement that is required by researchers to practice phe-
nomenology in its original sense and to differentiate it from
other forms of qualitative research.

In the introductory pages of his 2014 book, Phenomenology
of Practice, Max says:

This text is an invitation to openness, and an invitation of
openness to phenomenologies of lived meaning, the
meaning of meaning, and the originary sources of meaning.
The phrase, “phenomenology of practice” refers to the
kinds of inquires that address and serve the practices of
professional practitioners as well as the quotidian practices
of everyday life. For example, a thoughtful understanding of
the meaningful aspects of “having a conversation” may be
of value to professional practitioners as well as anyone
involved in the conversational relations of everyday living.

My personal inspiration for the name “phenomenology of
practice” lies in tSAGE Research Methods

An Applied Guide to Research Designs: Quantitative,

Qualitative, and Mixed Methods

Author: W. Alex Edmonds, Thomas D. Kennedy

Pub. Date: 2019

Product: SAGE Research Methods

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781071802779

Methods: Research questions, Experimental design, Mixed methods

Disciplines: Anthropology, Education, Geography, Health, Political Science and International Relations,

Psychology, Social Policy and Public Policy, Social Work, Sociology

Access Date: January 11, 2023

Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Inc

City: Thousand Oaks

Online ISBN: 9781071802779

© 2019 SAGE Publications, Inc All Rights Reserved.

https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781071802779

Quantitative Methods for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research

Part I includes four popular approaches to the quantitative method (experimental and quasi-experimental on-

ly), followed by some of the associated basic designs (accompanied by brief descriptions of published studies

that used the design). Visit the companion website at study.sagepub.com/edmonds2e to access valuable

instructor and student resources. These resources include PowerPoint slides, discussion questions, class ac-

tivities, SAGE journal articles, web resources, and online data sets.

Figure I.1 Quantitative Method Flowchart

Note: Quantitative methods for experimental and quasi-experimental research are shown here, followed by

the approach and then the design.

Research in quantitative methods essentially refers to the application of the systematic steps of the scientific

method, while using quantitative properties (i.e., numerical systems) to research the relationships or effects

of specific variables. Measurement is the critical component of the quantitative method. Measurement reveals

and illustrates the relationship between quantitatively derived variables. Variables within quantitative methods

must be, first, conceptually defined (i.e., the scientific definition), then operationalized (i.e., determine the ap-

propriate measurement tool based on the conceptual definition). Research in quantitative methods is typically

referred to as a deductive process and iterative in nature. That is, based on the findings, a theory is supported

(or not), expanded, or refined and further tested.

Researchers must employ the following steps when determining the appropriate quantitative research design.

SAGE

© 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

SAGE Research Methods

Page 2 of 6 An Applied Guide to Research Designs: Quantitative, Qualitative, and

Mixed Methods

http://study.sagepub.com/edmonds2e

1.

2.

3.

First, a measurable or testable research question (or hypothesis) must be formulated. The question must

maintain the following qualities: (a) precision, (b) viability, and (c) relevance. The question must be precise

and well formulated. The more precise, the easier it is to appropriately operationalize the variables of interest.The Qualitative Report 2012 Volume 17, Article 26, 1-21
http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR17/snyder.pdf

A Case Study of a Case Study:
Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

Catherine Snyder
Union Graduate College, Schenectady, NY, USA

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a
study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing
women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes
the study’s use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated
photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical
memos. An exploration into the interconnectedness of the methodologies
used reveals a robust framework from which the first stages of grounded
theory emerged. A detailed explanation of the methodological aspects of
conducting the study is discussed with the purpose of making this
combination of qualitative methods replicable. Key Words: Qualitative
Methods, Visual Research, Reflexive Analytic Memos, Participant
Generated Photography.

The purpose of this qualitative (Creswell, 1998; Merriam, 1998) case study
research was to understand the transformative journey of four women career-changers
moving from business, engineering, and science into secondary education. The study was
built within an authentic setting with varied and in-depth data collection. The focus of
this research was the exploration of the transformative process (Mezirow, 1978)
experienced by the participants as they transitioned from their previous careers into
graduate school and then into teaching.

The primary reason for the research was to gain an understanding of how adults
learn and how their relationship to learning is different from children or adolescents. It
has been my experience that adults approach new learning with a more intense need and
amplified emotional state compared to other age groups. The research questions targeted
the identification of transformation in the participants and the durability of those
transformations as they moved from their teacher education program into their careers as
secondary teachers.

The study moved with the participants from their decision to enter a Master of
Arts in Teaching (MAT) program to two years after the program. The questions, method,
design, and setting were brought together to serve one another so that the most in-depth
understanding of the participants’ transformative journey could be achieved.
Transformative learning theory (Mezirow, 2000) framed this study because of its
derivation from and focuses on adult learners (Kegan, 1998).

The purpose of this article is to describe a uniquely robust multi-part qualitative
methodology. The qualitative methods used include archived writing, journaling,
participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive
analytical memos. An exploration into the interconnectedness of the methodologies used
reveals a robust framework from which init1

Research Methods

for Social Workers

A Practice- Based Approach

T H I R D E D I T I O N

Samuel S. Faulkner

Cynthia A. Faulkner

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EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 1/11/2023 11:24 AM via NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY
AN: 1854272 ; Samuel S. Faulkner, Cynthia A. Faulkner.; Research Methods for Social Workers : A Practice-Based Approach
Account: s1229530.main.eds

1
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the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education

by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University
Press in the UK and certain other countries.

Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press
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© Oxford University Press 2019

First Edition published in 2009
Second Edition published in 2016
Third Edition published in 2019

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the

prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted
by law, by license, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reproduction

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above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the

address above.

You must not circulate this work in any other form
and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer.

Library of Congress Cataloging- in- Publication Data
Names: Faulkner, Cynthia A., author. | Faulkner, Samuel S., author.

Title: Research methods for social workers : a practice- based approach /
Samuel S. Faulkner, Cynthia A. Faulkner.

Description: Third edition. | New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2019. |
Cynthia A. Faulkner appears as the first named author on earlier editions.|

Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018015252 (print) | LCCN 2018016001 (ebook) | 

ISBN 9780190858957 (updf) | ISBN 9780190858964 (epub) |
ISBN 9780190858940 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Social service— Research— Methodology.
Classification: LCC HV11 (ebook) | LCC HV11 .F37 2019 (print) | 

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CONTE NTS

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
About thSecond Edition.
Published by the Center for Teaching and Learning, Northcentral University, 2021

Contributors:
Marie Bakari, Jennifer Biddle, Linda Bloomberg, John Frame, Namhee Kim, Sharon
Kimmel, Jaime Klein, Paul Markham, Craig Martin, Stephanie Menefee, Eva Philpot,
Wes Rangel, Randee Sanders, Abigail Scheg, Kimberly Scott, Patricia Steiner, Robert

Thompson, Marsha Tongel, Steven Ziemba

In addition to the collaborative process that engendered this guide, it was also informed
by the qualitative methods course in the School of Business, BUS-7380 Qualitative

Business Research Design and Methodology.

For comments or suggestions for the next edition, please contact the
School of Business: [email protected]

mailto:sb%40ncu.edu?subject=

Foreword (P1)

Introduction (P2)

Student-Chair Engagement (P2)

Qualitative Research Design (P3)

Research Questions (P3)

Case Study (P5)

Multiple Case Studies/Comparative
Case Study (P6)

Participant Selection (P7)

Interviews (P7)

Interviews: Minimum Number
Recommended (P9)

Focus Groups (P10)

Observation (P11)

Document Analysis (P12)

Hermeneutics (P12)

Phenomenological Design (P13)

Constructive Research (P15)

Ethnography (P16)

Grounded Theory (P18)

Narrative Design (P19)

Delphi Method (P20)

Mixed-Methods Research (P21)

Online Questionnaires and Unsuitable
Data Collection Practices (P21)

Interview Guides and Other
Instruments (P22)

Audio Recording and Transcribing
Interviews (P24)

Sampling in Qualitative Research (P25)

Data Saturation (P26)

Triangulation (P27)

Trustworthiness (P28)

Member Checking (P30)

Coding and Thematic Analysis (P30)

Including Data in the Findings (Chapter
4) of the Dissertation (P32)

1

Dear School of Business Community,

Welcome to the Best Practice Guide for Qualitative Research Design and Methods in
Dissertations!

With well over 600 doctoral students in the School of Business working on their dis-
sertation this year, this guide serves as an important resource in helping us shape and
implement quality doctoral-level research. Its primary purpose is to offer direction on
qualitative research in School of Business dissertations, serving students as they craft and
implement their research plans, and serving faculty as they mentor students and evaluate
research design and methods in dissertations.

We encourage you to explore this guide. It is filled with details on important topics that
will help ensure quality and consistency in qualitative research in the School of Business.
Offering support for both faculty and students, this resource covers many topics, from
those related to early stages of qualitative research design, to guidance on how to in-
clude qualitative data in a dissertation.

Thank you to the faculty and staff of the School of Business and wider NCU community
that worked to create this guide. It is a great contribution to our School, and each of
these individuals pla




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